Estimating demand elasticities in a differentiated product industry: The personal computer market
Supply and demand functions are typically estimated using uniform prices and quantities across products, but where products are heterogeneous, it is important to consider quality differences explicitly. This paper demonstrates a new approach to doing this by employing hedonic coefficients to estimate price elasticities for differentiated products in the market for personal computers. Differences among products are modeled as distances in a linear quality space derived from a multi-dimensional attribute space. Heterogeneous quality allows for the estimation of varying demand elasticities among models, using models' relative positions as measures of market power. Instead of restricting market competition to the two nearest models, as is typically done in the differentiated-product literature, cross-elasticities of substitution are allowed to decline continuously with distance between models in quality space. Using data on prices, technical attributes, and shipments of personal computers sold in the United States from 1977 to 1988, two-stage least squares estimates of demand elasticities are obtained. The estimated elasticities vary across models and over time, and are consistent with observed changes in market structure. Entrant firms, as well as new models, are found to face more elastic demand. The estimated elasticities are used to calculate price-cost markups and industry profit-revenue ratios. Both measures decline significantly, indicating a decrease in industry profitability over time, as the market became more competitive.
(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Robert C. Feenstra & James A. Levinsohn, 1995. "Estimating Markups and Market Conduct with Multidimensional Product Attributes," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 62(1), pages 19-52.
- Bresnahan, Timothy F., 1981. "Departures from marginal-cost pricing in the American automobile industry : Estimates for 1977-1978," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 201-227, November.
- Rosen, Sherwin, 1974. "Hedonic Prices and Implicit Markets: Product Differentiation in Pure Competition," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 82(1), pages 34-55, Jan.-Feb..
- Ernst R. Berndt & Zvi Griliches, 1993.
"Price Indexes for Microcomputers: An Exploratory Study,"
NBER Chapters,in: Price Measurements and Their Uses, pages 63-100
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Ernst R. Berndt & Zvi Griliches, 1990. "Price Indexes for Microcomputers: An Exploratory Study," NBER Working Papers 3378, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- James Levinsohn, 1988. "Empirics of Taxes on Differentiated Products: The Case of Tariffs in the U.S. Automobile Industry," NBER Chapters,in: Trade Policy Issues and Empirical Analysis, pages 9-44 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Schmalensee, Richard, 1982. "Product Differentiation Advantages of Pioneering Brands," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(3), pages 349-365, June.
- Schmalensee, Richard., 1980. "Product differentiation advantages of pioneering brands," Working papers 1140-80., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
- Bresnahan, Timothy F., 1989. "Empirical studies of industries with market power," Handbook of Industrial Organization,in: R. Schmalensee & R. Willig (ed.), Handbook of Industrial Organization, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 17, pages 1011-1057 Elsevier.
- Gelfand, Matthew D. & Spiller, Pablo T., 1987. "Entry barriers and multiproduct oligopolies: Do they forebear or spoil?," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 101-113, March. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)