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Margin exceedences for European stock index futures using extreme value theory

  • Cotter, John

Futures exchanges require a margin requirement that ensures their competitiveness and protects against default risk. This paper applies extreme value theory in computing unconditional optimal margin levels for a selection of stock index futures traded on European exchanges. The theoretical framework focuses explicitly on tail returns, thereby properly accounting for large levels of risk in measuring prudent margin levels. The paper finds that common margin requirements are sufficient for each contract, with the exception of the Norwegian OBX index, in providing equitable costs for traders. In addition, the paper shows the underestimation bias in margin levels that are calculated assuming normality. Differing margin requirements reflect the unconditional and conditional trading environments.

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Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Banking & Finance.

Volume (Year): 25 (2001)
Issue (Month): 8 (August)
Pages: 1475-1502

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Handle: RePEc:eee:jbfina:v:25:y:2001:i:8:p:1475-1502
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  1. John Cotter & Donal G. McKillop, 2000. "The Distributional Characteristics of a Selection of Contracts Traded on the London International Financial Futures Exchange," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 27(3-4), pages 487-510.
  2. Pagan, Adrian, 1996. "The econometrics of financial markets," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 3(1), pages 15-102, May.
  3. Phillip Kearns & Adrian Pagan, 1997. "Estimating The Density Tail Index For Financial Time Series," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 79(2), pages 171-175, May.
  4. Koedijk, Kees G & Kool, Clemens J M, 1992. "Tail Estimates of East European Exchange Rates," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 10(1), pages 83-96, January.
  5. Ding, Zhuanxin & Granger, Clive W. J., 1996. "Modeling volatility persistence of speculative returns: A new approach," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 73(1), pages 185-215, July.
  6. Jon Danielsson & Casper G. de Vries, 1998. "Beyond the Sample: Extreme Quantile and Probability Estimation," FMG Discussion Papers dp298, Financial Markets Group.
  7. G. Geoffrey Booth & John Paul Broussard & Teppo Martikainen & Vesa Puttonen, 1997. "Prudent Margin Levels in the Finnish Stock Index Futures Market," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 43(8), pages 1177-1188, August.
  8. Phillips, Peter C B & McFarland, James W & McMahon, Patrick C, 1996. "Robust Tests of Forward Exchange Market Efficiency with Empirical Evidence from the 1920s," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(1), pages 1-22, Jan.-Feb..
  9. Hans Dewachter & Geert Gielens, 1999. "Setting futures margins: the extremes approach," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(2), pages 173-181.
  10. Paul H. Kupiec & A. Patricia White, 1996. "Regulatory competition and the efficiency of alternative derivative product margining systems," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 96-11, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  11. Hols, Martien C A B & de Vries, Casper G, 1991. "The Limiting Distribution of Extremal Exchange Rate Returns," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 6(3), pages 287-302, July-Sept.
  12. Ghose, Devajyoti & Kroner, Kenneth F., 1995. "The relationship between GARCH and symmetric stable processes: Finding the source of fat tails in financial data," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 225-251, September.
  13. Jón Daníelsson & Casper G. de Vries, 1998. "Value-at-Risk and Extreme Returns," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 98-017/2, Tinbergen Institute.
  14. Longin, François, 1999. "From Value at Risk to Stress Testing: The Extreme Value Approach," CEPR Discussion Papers 2161, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  15. Longin, Francois M., 2000. "From value at risk to stress testing: The extreme value approach," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(7), pages 1097-1130, July.
  16. Paul H. Kupiec & A. Patricia White, 1996. "Regulatory competition and the efficiency of alternative derivative product margining systems," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(8), pages 943-968, December.
  17. Loretan, Mico & Phillips, Peter C. B., 1994. "Testing the covariance stationarity of heavy-tailed time series: An overview of the theory with applications to several financial datasets," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 1(2), pages 211-248, January.
  18. Brennan, Michael J., 1986. "A theory of price limits in futures markets," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 213-233, June.
  19. Hall, Joyce A. & Brorsen, B. Wade & Irwin, Scott H., 1989. "The Distribution of Futures Prices: A Test of the Stable Paretian and Mixture of Normals Hypotheses," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 24(01), pages 105-116, March.
  20. Subu Venkataraman, 1997. "Value at risk for a mixture of normal distributions: the use of quasi- Bayesian estimation techniques," Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, issue Mar, pages 2-13.
  21. repec:ner:tilbur:urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-3108733 is not listed on IDEAS
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