Extreme observations and risk assessment in the equity markets of MENA region: Tail measures and Value-at-Risk
The standard "delta-normal" Value-at-Risk methodology requires that the underlying returns generating distribution for the security in question is normally distributed, with moments which can be estimated using historical data and are time-invariant. However, the stylized fact that returns are fat-tailed is likely to lead to under-prediction of both the size of extreme market movements and the frequency with which they occur. In this paper, we use the extreme value theory to analyze four emerging markets belonging to the MENA region (Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, and Turkey). We focus on the tails of the unconditional distribution of returns in each market and provide estimates of their tail index behavior. In the process, we find that the returns have significantly fatter tails than the normal distribution and therefore introduce the extreme value theory. We then estimate the maximum daily loss by computing the Value-at-Risk (VaR) in each market. Consistent with the results from other developing countries [see Gencay, R. and Selcuk, F., (2004). Extreme value theory and Value-at-Risk: relative performance in emerging markets. International Journal of Forecasting, 20, 287-303; Mendes, B., (2000). Computing robust risk measures in emerging equity markets using extreme value theory. Emerging Markets Quarterly, 4, 25-41; Silva, A. and Mendes, B., (2003). Value-at-Risk and extreme returns in Asian stock markets. International Journal of Business, 8, 17-40], generally, we find that the VaR estimates based on the tail index are higher than those based on a normal distribution for all markets, and therefore a proper risk assessment should not neglect the tail behavior in these markets, since that may lead to an improper evaluation of market risk. Our results should be useful to investors, bankers, and fund managers, whose success depends on the ability to forecast stock price movements in these markets and therefore build their portfolios based on these forecasts.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Butler, Kirt C. & Malaikah, S. J., 1992. "Efficiency and inefficiency in thinly traded stock markets: Kuwait and Saudi Arabia," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 197-210, February.
- Giorgio De Santis & Selahattin Imrohoroglu, 1994.
"Stock returns and volatility in emerging financial markets,"
Discussion Paper / Institute for Empirical Macroeconomics
93, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
- De Santis, Giorgio & imrohoroglu, Selahattin, 1997. "Stock returns and volatility in emerging financial markets," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 561-579, August.
- Jansen, Dennis W & de Vries, Casper G, 1991.
"On the Frequency of Large Stock Returns: Putting Booms and Busts into Perspective,"
The Review of Economics and Statistics,
MIT Press, vol. 73(1), pages 18-24, February.
- Dennis W. Jansen & Casper de Vries, 1988. "On the frequency of large stock returns: putting booms and busts into perspective," Working Papers 1989-006, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
- Darrat, Ali F. & Pennathur, Anita, 2002. "Are the Arab Maghreb countries really integratable?: Some evidence from the theory of cointegrated systems," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 79-90.
- Longin, Francois M., 2000. "From value at risk to stress testing: The extreme value approach," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(7), pages 1097-1130, July.
- Lagoarde-Segot, Thomas & Lucey, Brian M., 2007. "International portfolio diversification: Is there a role for the Middle East and North Africa?," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 17(5), pages 401-416, December.
- Ghysels, Eric & Cherkaoui, Mouna, 2003. "Emerging markets and trading costs: lessons from Casablanca," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 10(1-2), pages 169-198, February.
- Tae-Hwy Lee & Yong Bao & Burak Saltoglu, 2006. "Evaluating predictive performance of value-at-risk models in emerging markets: a reality check," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 25(2), pages 101-128.
- Longin, Francois M, 1996. "The Asymptotic Distribution of Extreme Stock Market Returns," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 69(3), pages 383-408, July.
- Loretan, Mico & Phillips, Peter C. B., 1994.
"Testing the covariance stationarity of heavy-tailed time series: An overview of the theory with applications to several financial datasets,"
Journal of Empirical Finance,
Elsevier, vol. 1(2), pages 211-248, January.
- Brooks, Robert, 2007. "Power arch modelling of the volatility of emerging equity markets," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 124-133, May.
- Kian-Ping Lim, 2009. "Weak-form market efficiency and nonlinearity: evidence from Middle East and African stock indices," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(5), pages 519-522.
- Bollerslev, Tim, 1987. "A Conditionally Heteroskedastic Time Series Model for Speculative Prices and Rates of Return," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 69(3), pages 542-47, August.
- Appiah-Kusi, Joe & Menyah, Kojo, 2003. "Return predictability in African stock markets," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 247-270.
- Campbell R. Harvey, 1994.
"Predictable Risk and Returns in Emerging Markets,"
NBER Working Papers
4621, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Nikkinen, Jussi & Omran, Mohammad M. & Sahlstrom, Petri & Aijo, Janne, 2008. "Stock returns and volatility following the September 11 attacks: Evidence from 53 equity markets," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 27-46.
- Blattberg, Robert C & Gonedes, Nicholas J, 1974. "A Comparison of the Stable and Student Distributions as Statistical Models for Stock Prices," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 47(2), pages 244-80, April.
- Hammoudeh, Shawkat & Li, Huimin, 2008. "Sudden changes in volatility in emerging markets: The case of Gulf Arab stock markets," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 47-63.
- Denis Kwiatkowski & Peter C.B. Phillips & Peter Schmidt, 1991.
"Testing the Null Hypothesis of Stationarity Against the Alternative of a Unit Root: How Sure Are We That Economic Time Series Have a Unit Root?,"
Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers
979, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
- Kwiatkowski, Denis & Phillips, Peter C. B. & Schmidt, Peter & Shin, Yongcheol, 1992. "Testing the null hypothesis of stationarity against the alternative of a unit root : How sure are we that economic time series have a unit root?," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1-3), pages 159-178.
- Tom Doan, . "KPSS: RATS procedure to perform KPSS (Kwiatowski, Phillips, Schmidt, and Shin) stationarity test," Statistical Software Components RTS00100, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Kwiatkowski, D. & Phillips, P.C.B. & Schmidt, P., 1990. "Testing the Null Hypothesis of Stationarity Against the Alternative of Unit Root : How Sure are we that Economic Time Series have a Unit Root?," Papers 8905, Michigan State - Econometrics and Economic Theory.
- Abraham Abraham, 2002. "Testing the Random Walk Behavior and Efficiency of the Gulf Stock Markets," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 37(3), pages 469-480, 08.
- Ian Domowitz & Jack Glen & Ananth Madhavan, 1998. "International Cross-Listing and Order Flow Migration: Evidence from an Emerging Market," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(6), pages 2001-2027, December.
- Pagan, Adrian, 1996. "The econometrics of financial markets," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 3(1), pages 15-102, May.
- Aktham I. Maghyereh & Haitham A. Al-Zoubi, 2006. "Value-at-risk under extreme values: the relative performance in MENA emerging stock markets," International Journal of Managerial Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 2(2), pages 154-172, July.
- Hols, Martien C A B & de Vries, Casper G, 1991. "The Limiting Distribution of Extremal Exchange Rate Returns," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 6(3), pages 287-302, July-Sept.
- Claessens, Stijn & Dasgupta, Susmita & Glen, Jack, 1995. "Return Behavior in Emerging Stock Markets," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 9(1), pages 131-51, January.
- Bekaert, Geert & Harvey, Campbell R., 1997.
"Emerging equity market volatility,"
Journal of Financial Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 29-77, January.
- Benoit Mandelbrot, 1963. "The Variation of Certain Speculative Prices," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 36, pages 394.
- Lagoarde-Segot, Thomas & Lucey, Brian M., 2008. "Efficiency in emerging markets--Evidence from the MENA region," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 94-105, February.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:finana:v:18:y:2009:i:3:p:109-116. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.