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Spectral Risk Measures with an Application to Futures Clearinghouse Variation Margin Requirements

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Listed:
  • Cotter, John
  • Dowd, Kevin

Abstract

This paper applies an AR(1)-GARCH (1, 1) process to detail the conditional distributions of the return distributions for the S&P500, FT100, DAX, Hang Seng, and Nikkei225 futures contracts. It then uses the conditional distribution for these contracts to estimate spectral risk measures, which are coherent risk measures that reflect a user’s risk-aversion function. It compares these to more familiar VaR and Expected Shortfall (ES) measures of risk, and also compares the precision and discusses the relative usefulness of each of these risk measures in setting variation margins that incorporate time-varying market conditions. The goodness of fit of the model is confirmed by a variety of backtests.

Suggested Citation

  • Cotter, John & Dowd, Kevin, 2006. "Spectral Risk Measures with an Application to Futures Clearinghouse Variation Margin Requirements," MPRA Paper 3495, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:3495
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    File URL: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/3495/1/MPRA_paper_3495.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Brennan, Michael J., 1986. "A theory of price limits in futures markets," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 213-233, June.
    2. Fishburn, Peter C, 1977. "Mean-Risk Analysis with Risk Associated with Below-Target Returns," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 67(2), pages 116-126, March.
    3. Cotter, John & Dowd, Kevin, 2006. "Extreme spectral risk measures: An application to futures clearinghouse margin requirements," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(12), pages 3469-3485, December.
    4. Bertsimas, Dimitris & Lauprete, Geoffrey J. & Samarov, Alexander, 2004. "Shortfall as a risk measure: properties, optimization and applications," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 28(7), pages 1353-1381, April.
    5. Cotter, John, 2007. "Varying the VaR for unconditional and conditional environments," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(8), pages 1338-1354, December.
    6. Diebold, Francis X & Gunther, Todd A & Tay, Anthony S, 1998. "Evaluating Density Forecasts with Applications to Financial Risk Management," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 39(4), pages 863-883, November.
    7. Bawa, Vijay S., 1975. "Optimal rules for ordering uncertain prospects," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 2(1), pages 95-121, March.
    8. Acerbi, Carlo, 2002. "Spectral measures of risk: A coherent representation of subjective risk aversion," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(7), pages 1505-1518, July.
    9. G. Geoffrey Booth & John Paul Broussard & Teppo Martikainen & Vesa Puttonen, 1997. "Prudent Margin Levels in the Finnish Stock Index Futures Market," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 43(8), pages 1177-1188, August.
    10. Cotter, John, 2001. "Margin exceedences for European stock index futures using extreme value theory," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(8), pages 1475-1502, August.
    11. Philippe Artzner & Freddy Delbaen & Jean-Marc Eber & David Heath, 1999. "Coherent Measures of Risk," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(3), pages 203-228.
    12. Giannopoulos, Kostas & Tunaru, Radu, 2005. "Coherent risk measures under filtered historical simulation," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 979-996, April.
    13. Bollerslev, Tim & Chou, Ray Y. & Kroner, Kenneth F., 1992. "ARCH modeling in finance : A review of the theory and empirical evidence," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 52(1-2), pages 5-59.
    14. Theodore E. Day, 2004. "Margin Adequacy and Standards: An Analysis of the Crude Oil Futures Market," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 77(1), pages 101-136, January.
    15. Bates, David & Craine, Roger, 1999. "Valuing the Futures Market Clearinghouse's Default Exposure during the 1987 Crash," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 31(2), pages 248-272, May.
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    Cited by:

    1. Robert A. Jones & Christophe Pérignon, 2013. "Derivatives Clearing, Default Risk, and Insurance," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 80(2), pages 373-400, June.
    2. Takashi Kato, 2017. "Asymptotic Analysis for Spectral Risk Measures Parameterized by Confidence Level," Papers 1711.07335, arXiv.org.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • G1 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets
    • G0 - Financial Economics - - General

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