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Regulatory competition and the efficiency of alternative derivative product margining systems

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  • Paul H. Kupiec
  • Patricia A. White

Abstract

Although margin requirements would arise naturally in the context of unregulated trading of clearinghouse-guaranteed derivative contracts, the margin requirements on U.S. exchange-traded derivative products are subject to government regulatory oversight. At present, two alternative methodologies are used for margining exchange-traded derivative contracts. Customer positions in securities and securities options are margined using a strategy-based approach. Futures, futures-options, and securities-option clearinghouse margins are set using a portfolio margining system. This study evaluates the relative efficiency of these alternative margining techniques using data on S&P500 futures-option contracts traded on the Chicago Mercantile Exchange. The results indicate that the portfolio margining approach is a much more efficient system for collateralizing the one-day risk exposures of equity derivative portfolios. Given the overwhelming efficiency advantage of the portfolio approach, the simultaneous existence of these alternative margining methods is somewhat puzzling. It is argued that the co-existence of these systems can in part be explained in the context of Kane's (1984) model of regulatory competition. The efficiency comparison also provides insight into other industry and regulatory issues including the design of bilateral collateralization agreements and the efficiency of alternative schemes that have been proposed for setting regulatory capital requirements for market risk in banks and other financial institutions

Suggested Citation

  • Paul H. Kupiec & Patricia A. White, 1996. "Regulatory competition and the efficiency of alternative derivative product margining systems," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 96-11, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedgfe:96-11
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. George W. Fenn & Paul H. Kupiec, 1991. "Prudential margin policy in a futures-style settlement system," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 164, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    2. Dimson, Elroy & Marsh, Paul, 1995. " Capital Requirements for Securities Firms," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(3), pages 821-851, July.
    3. Black, Fischer, 1976. "The pricing of commodity contracts," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(1-2), pages 167-179.
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    Cited by:

    1. Paul Kupiec, 1998. "Margin Requirements, Volatility, and Market Integrity: What Have We Learned Since the Crash?," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 13(3), pages 231-255, June.
    2. Yannick Armenti & Stéphane Crépey, 2017. "Central Clearing Valuation Adjustment," Working Papers hal-01169169, HAL.
    3. Robert A. Jones & Christophe Pérignon, 2013. "Derivatives Clearing, Default Risk, and Insurance," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 80(2), pages 373-400, June.
    4. Cotter, John, 2001. "Margin exceedences for European stock index futures using extreme value theory," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(8), pages 1475-1502, August.
    5. Hentschel, Ludger & Smith, Clifford Jr., 1997. "Derivatives regulation: Implications for central banks," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 305-346, October.
    6. Luis Garicano & Rosa M. Lastra, 2010. "Towards a New Architecture for Financial Stability: Seven Principles," Journal of International Economic Law, Oxford University Press, vol. 13(3), pages 597-621, September.
    7. Elder, Adam & Gannon, Gerard, 1998. "Evaluation of volatility forecasts in an economic value framework," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 7(3), pages 221-236.
    8. Shi, Wei & Irwin, Scott H., 2006. "What Happens when Peter can't Pay Paul: Risk Management at Futures Exchange Clearinghouses," 2006 Annual meeting, July 23-26, Long Beach, CA 21087, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    9. Yannick Armenti & St'ephane Cr'epey, 2015. "Central Clearing Valuation Adjustment," Papers 1506.08595, arXiv.org, revised Feb 2017.

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    Keywords

    Derivative securities;

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