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Household energy consumption patterns and its environmental implications: Assessment of energy access and poverty in Nepal


  • Malla, Sunil


Approximately 87% of Nepal's total final energy is consumed by households. This paper analyzes the patterns of household energy use and associated air pollutant emissions in Nepal based on LEAP framework for thirteen analytical regions and three end-uses. Four scenarios involving different growth paths for socio economic and energy system development through the year 2040 are considered. The study finds that household energy use is heterogeneous across the regions and biomass for cooking dominates the country's energy-mix. Households' CO2 emissions are less significant but their local indoor pollutant emissions will continue to rise in the future. To help strengthen government's commitment to the UN's sustainable energy for all initiative, this study devises an energy development index (EDI) to assess country's energy access and poverty across the regions. The results reveal that the current level of both energy access and energy poverty in the country is below the basic human needs and this situation will improve by little in next 30 years. The paper argues that to improve these situations require more coordinated and innovative plans and policies from the government. The paper suggests that greater emphasis will be needed in reducing dependence of biomass for cooking, promoting domestic alternative energy sources, scaling up biomass improved cookstoves programs and developing periodic regional level energy database.

Suggested Citation

  • Malla, Sunil, 2013. "Household energy consumption patterns and its environmental implications: Assessment of energy access and poverty in Nepal," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 990-1002.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:61:y:2013:i:c:p:990-1002
    DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2013.06.023

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Vania Vigolo & Rezarta Sallaku & Federico Testa, 2018. "Drivers and Barriers to Clean Cooking: A Systematic Literature Review from a Consumer Behavior Perspective," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(11), pages 1-21, November.
    2. Acharya, Bikram & Marhold, Klaus, 2019. "Determinants of household energy use and fuel switching behavior in Nepal," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 169(C), pages 1132-1138.
    3. Vidoza, Jorge A. & Gallo, Waldyr L.R., 2016. "Projection of fossil fuels consumption in the Venezuelan electricity generation industry," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 237-249.
    4. Joshi, Janak & Bohara, Alok K., 2017. "Household preferences for cooking fuels and inter-fuel substitutions: Unlocking the modern fuels in the Nepalese household," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 107(C), pages 507-523.
    5. Chuan Tian & Guohui Feng & Shuai Li & Fuqiang Xu, 2019. "Scenario Analysis on Energy Consumption and CO 2 Emissions Reduction Potential in Building Heating Sector at Community Level," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(19), pages 1-26, September.
    6. Qian Wang & Qiao-Mei Liang & Bing Wang & Fang-Xun Zhong, 2016. "Impact of household expenditures on CO2 emissions in China: Income-determined or lifestyle-driven?," Natural Hazards: Journal of the International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, Springer;International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, vol. 84(1), pages 353-379, November.
    7. Zhang, Dayong & Li, Jiajia & Han, Phoumin, 2019. "A multidimensional measure of energy poverty in China and its impacts on health: An empirical study based on the China family panel studies," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 131(C), pages 72-81.
    8. Ghulam Murtaza & Muhammad Zahir Faridi, 2015. "Causality Linkages among Energy Poverty, Income Inequality, Income Poverty and Growth: A System Dynamic Modelling Approach," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 54(4), pages 407-425.


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