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Energy and environmental implications of carbon emission reduction targets: Case of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal


  • Shrestha, Ram M.
  • Rajbhandari, Salony


This paper analyzes the sectoral energy consumption pattern and emissions of CO2 and local air pollutants in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. It also discusses the evolution of energy service demands, structure of energy supply system and emissions from various sectors under the base case scenario during 2005-2050. A long term energy system planning model of the Kathmandu Valley based on the MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) framework is used for the analyses. Furthermore, the paper analyzes the least cost options to achieve CO2 emission reduction targets of 10%, 20% and 30% below the cumulative emission level in the base case and also discusses their implications for total cost, technology-mix, energy-mix and local pollutant emissions. The paper shows that a major switch in energy use pattern from oil and gas to electricity would be needed in the Valley to achieve the cumulative CO2 emission reduction target of 30% (ER30). Further, the share of electricity in the cumulative energy consumption of the transport sector would increase from 12% in the base case to 24% in the ER30 case.

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  • Shrestha, Ram M. & Rajbhandari, Salony, 2010. "Energy and environmental implications of carbon emission reduction targets: Case of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(9), pages 4818-4827, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:38:y:2010:i:9:p:4818-4827

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Suganthi, L. & Samuel, Anand A., 2012. "Energy models for demand forecasting—A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 1223-1240.
    2. Shrestha, Ram M. & Shakya, Shree Raj, 2012. "Benefits of low carbon development in a developing country: Case of Nepal," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(S3), pages 503-512.
    3. Shree Shakya & S. Kumar & Ram Shrestha, 2012. "Co-benefits of a carbon tax in Nepal," Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Springer, vol. 17(1), pages 77-101, January.
    4. Malla, Sunil, 2014. "Assessment of mobility and its impact on energy use and air pollution in Nepal," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 485-496.
    5. Wang, Mingwei & Che, Yue & Yang, Kai & Wang, Min & Xiong, Lijun & Huang, Yuchi, 2011. "A local-scale low-carbon plan based on the STIRPAT model and the scenario method: The case of Minhang District, Shanghai, China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(11), pages 6981-6990.
    6. Baral Gautam, Yamuna & Pelkonen, Paavo & Halder, Pradipta, 2013. "Perceptions of bioenergy among Nepalese foresters – Survey results and policy implications," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 533-538.
    7. M. K. Thapa & B. K. Bhattarai & S. Gurung & B. K. Sapkota & K. N. Poudyal & N. R. Karki, 2017. "Effects of aerosols on the solar radiation in mid-hill of Nepal: a case study in the Kathmandu Valley," International Journal of System Assurance Engineering and Management, Springer;The Society for Reliability, Engineering Quality and Operations Management (SREQOM),India, and Division of Operation and Maintenance, Lulea University of Technology, Sweden, vol. 8(1), pages 54-62, March.
    8. Ye Liu & Guohe Huang & Yanpeng Cai & Cong Dong, 2011. "An Inexact Mix-Integer Two-Stage Linear Programming Model for Supporting the Management of a Low-Carbon Energy System in China," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 4(10), pages 1-30, October.
    9. Ali, Ghaffar & Abbas, Sawaid & Mueen Qamer, Faisal, 2013. "How effectively low carbon society development models contribute to climate change mitigation and adaptation action plans in Asia," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 632-638.
    10. Anwar, Javed, 2016. "Analysis of energy security, environmental emission and fuel import costs under energy import reduction targets: A case of Pakistan," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 1065-1078.
    11. Sovacool, Benjamin K. & Dhakal, Saroj & Gippner, Olivia & Bambawale, Malavika Jain, 2011. "Halting hydro: A review of the socio-technical barriers to hydroelectric power plants in Nepal," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(5), pages 3468-3476.
    12. Gurung, Anup & Oh, Sang Eun, 2013. "Conversion of traditional biomass into modern bioenergy systems: A review in context to improve the energy situation in Nepal," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 206-213.
    13. Malla, Sunil, 2013. "Household energy consumption patterns and its environmental implications: Assessment of energy access and poverty in Nepal," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 990-1002.


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