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Human capital and export diversification as new determinants of energy demand in the United States

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  • Shahbaz, Muhammad
  • Gozgor, Giray
  • Hammoudeh, Shawkat

Abstract

This paper investigates how education and export diversification contribute to energy demand by also incorporating the role of natural resource, oil prices and income in driving energy demand function for the United States (U.S.) economy. In doing so, we apply the unit root test of Kim and Perron (2009) and the bootstrapping autoregressive-distributed lag (ARDL) cointegration approach developed by McNown etal. (2018), which accommodates the presence of a single unknown structural break in the series. The empirical results confirm that the variables are cointegrated in a long-run relationship. Education is negatively linked to energy demand, and export diversification also decreases this demand in the long-run. On the other hand, economic growth increases energy consumption, while oil prices reduce energy demand in the long-run. Natural resource production affects energy consumption positively. Further, the Vector Error Correction Mechanism (VECM)'s Granger causality analysis reveals a feedback effect between education and energy demand. Export diversification causes energy demand, and in return, energy demand causes export diversification. A bidirectional causality also exists between economic growth and energy demand. The paper also discusses the potential implications of the results.

Suggested Citation

  • Shahbaz, Muhammad & Gozgor, Giray & Hammoudeh, Shawkat, 2019. "Human capital and export diversification as new determinants of energy demand in the United States," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 335-349.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:eneeco:v:78:y:2019:i:c:p:335-349
    DOI: 10.1016/j.eneco.2018.11.016
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    Cited by:

    1. Yao, Yao & Ivanovski, Kris & Inekwe, John & Smyth, Russell, 2019. "Human capital and energy consumption: Evidence from OECD countries," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 84(C).
    2. Muhammad Shahbaz & Giray Gozgor & Philip Kofi Adom & Shawkat Hammoudeh, 2019. "The technical decomposition of carbon emissions and the concerns about FDI and trade openness effects in the United States," International Economics, CEPII research center, issue 159, pages 56-73.
    3. Xia, Yan & Kong, Yishu & Ji, Qiang & Zhang, Dayong, 2019. "Impacts of China-US trade conflicts on the energy sector," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 58(C).
    4. Zafar, Muhammad Wasif & Zaidi, Syed Anees Haider & Khan, Naveed R. & Mirza, Faisal Mehmood & Hou, Fujun & Kirmani, Syed Ali Ashiq, 2019. "The impact of natural resources, human capital, and foreign direct investment on the ecological footprint: The case of the United States," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 1-1.
    5. Khan, Ali Nawaz & En, Xie & Raza, Muhammad Yousaf & Khan, Naseer Abbas & Ali, Ahsan, 2020. "Sectorial study of technological progress and CO2 emission: Insights from a developing economy," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 151(C).
    6. Azad, Rohit & Chakraborty, Shouvik, 2020. "Green Growth and the Right to Energy in India," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 141(C).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Energy demand; Education; Export diversification; Oil prices; Natural resources;

    JEL classification:

    • Q43 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Energy and the Macroeconomy
    • Q41 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Demand and Supply; Prices
    • L25 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Firm Performance
    • I25 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Education and Economic Development
    • O13 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Environment; Other Primary Products

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