IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/eneeco/v76y2018icp64-75.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

The Minimum-CVaR strategy with semi-parametric estimation in carbon market hedging problems

Author

Listed:
  • Chai, Shanglei
  • Zhou, P.

Abstract

Effective hedging strategies are important in reducing price volatility risk for business investors and companies participating into carbon markets. In this paper, we investigate the risk triggered by price fluctuation of European Union Allowance (EUA). A semi-parametric approach with Cornish-Fisher expansion, which approximates the quantile using the higher moments of the distribution, is provided to estimate hedging ratios using CVaR as risk objective function. The approach can successfully capture the features of higher moments with the heavy-tailed and higher kurtosis distribution of the EUA returns which tends to be neglected. The hedging performances of Minimum-CVaR model we proposed and the conventional Minimum-Variance model are evaluated and compared. Our empirical results show that Minimum-CVaR hedging strategy generally outperforms the other in-sample using all the effectiveness criteria while it is not consistent out-of-sample. The proposed semi-parametric Minimum-CVaR strategy with Cornish-Fisher expansion is advisable in carbon market hedging problems.

Suggested Citation

  • Chai, Shanglei & Zhou, P., 2018. "The Minimum-CVaR strategy with semi-parametric estimation in carbon market hedging problems," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 64-75.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:eneeco:v:76:y:2018:i:c:p:64-75
    DOI: 10.1016/j.eneco.2018.09.024
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140988318303967
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Gordon J. Alexander & Alexandre M. Baptista, 2004. "A Comparison of VaR and CVaR Constraints on Portfolio Selection with the Mean-Variance Model," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 50(9), pages 1261-1273, September.
    2. Cai, Zongwu & Wang, Xian, 2008. "Nonparametric estimation of conditional VaR and expected shortfall," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 147(1), pages 120-130, November.
    3. Keppler, Jan Horst & Mansanet-Bataller, Maria, 2010. "Causalities between CO2, electricity, and other energy variables during phase I and phase II of the EU ETS," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(7), pages 3329-3341, July.
    4. Paul H. Kupiec, 1995. "Techniques for verifying the accuracy of risk measurement models," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 95-24, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    5. Boroumand, Raphaël Homayoun & Goutte, Stéphane & Porcher, Simon & Porcher, Thomas, 2015. "Hedging strategies in energy markets: The case of electricity retailers," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 503-509.
    6. Blyth, William & Bunn, Derek, 2011. "Coevolution of policy, market and technical price risks in the EU ETS," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(8), pages 4578-4593, August.
    7. Mansanet-Bataller, Maria & Chevallier, Julien & Hervé-Mignucci, Morgan & Alberola, Emilie, 2011. "EUA and sCER phase II price drivers: Unveiling the reasons for the existence of the EUA-sCER spread," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 1056-1069, March.
    8. Balcılar, Mehmet & Demirer, Rıza & Hammoudeh, Shawkat & Nguyen, Duc Khuong, 2016. "Risk spillovers across the energy and carbon markets and hedging strategies for carbon risk," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 159-172.
    9. Meng, Xiaochun & Taylor, James W., 2018. "An approximate long-memory range-based approach for value at risk estimation," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 377-388.
    10. Feng, Zhen-Hua & Wei, Yi-Ming & Wang, Kai, 2012. "Estimating risk for the carbon market via extreme value theory: An empirical analysis of the EU ETS," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 99(C), pages 97-108.
    11. Koch, Nicolas & Fuss, Sabine & Grosjean, Godefroy & Edenhofer, Ottmar, 2014. "Causes of the EU ETS price drop: Recession, CDM, renewable policies or a bit of everything?—New evidence," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 676-685.
    12. repec:dau:papers:123456789/4210 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Rita Sousa & Luís Aguiar-Conraria & Maria Joana Soares, 2014. "Carbon Financial Markets: a time-frequency analysis of CO2 price drivers," NIPE Working Papers 03/2014, NIPE - Universidade do Minho.
    14. Chang, Chia-Lin & McAleer, Michael & Tansuchat, Roengchai, 2011. "Crude oil hedging strategies using dynamic multivariate GARCH," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 912-923, September.
    15. Tursunalieva, Ainura & Silvapulle, Param, 2016. "Nonparametric estimation of operational value-at-risk (OpVaR)," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 194-201.
    16. Awudu, Iddrisu & Wilson, William & Dahl, Bruce, 2016. "Hedging strategy for ethanol processing with copula distributions," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 59-65.
    17. Pan, Zhiyuan & Wang, Yudong & Yang, Li, 2014. "Hedging crude oil using refined product: A regime switching asymmetric DCC approach," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 472-484.
    18. Conlon, Thomas & Cotter, John, 2013. "Downside risk and the energy hedger's horizon," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 371-379.
    19. Coulon, Michael & Powell, Warren B. & Sircar, Ronnie, 2013. "A model for hedging load and price risk in the Texas electricity market," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 976-988.
    20. Yu, Wenhua & Yang, Kun & Wei, Yu & Lei, Likun, 2018. "Measuring Value-at-Risk and Expected Shortfall of crude oil portfolio using extreme value theory and vine copula," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 490(C), pages 1423-1433.
    21. Liu, Bing-Yue & Ji, Qiang & Fan, Ying, 2017. "Dynamic return-volatility dependence and risk measure of CoVaR in the oil market: A time-varying mixed copula model," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 53-65.
    22. Philip, Dennis & Shi, Yukun, 2016. "Optimal hedging in carbon emission markets using Markov regime switching models," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 1-15.
    23. Ibrahim, Boulis Maher & Kalaitzoglou, Iordanis Angelos, 2016. "Why do carbon prices and price volatility change?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 76-94.
    24. Ederington, Louis H, 1979. "The Hedging Performance of the New Futures Markets," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 34(1), pages 157-170, March.
    25. Barradale, Merrill Jones, 2014. "Investment under uncertain climate policy: A practitioners׳ perspective on carbon risk," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 520-535.
    26. Gao, Chun-Ting & Zhou, Xiao-Hua, 2016. "Forecasting VaR and ES using dynamic conditional score models and skew Student distribution," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 216-223.
    27. Billio, Monica & Casarin, Roberto & Osuntuyi, Anthony, 2018. "Markov switching GARCH models for Bayesian hedging on energy futures markets," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 545-562.
    28. repec:dau:papers:123456789/4227 is not listed on IDEAS
    29. Sadeghi, Mehdi & Shavvalpour, Saeed, 2006. "Energy risk management and value at risk modeling," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(18), pages 3367-3373, December.
    30. Ghorbel, Ahmed & Trabelsi, Abdelwahed, 2014. "Energy portfolio risk management using time-varying extreme value copula methods," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 470-485.
    31. Chevallier, Julien, 2009. "Carbon futures and macroeconomic risk factors: A view from the EU ETS," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 614-625, July.
    32. Alexander, Carol & Prokopczuk, Marcel & Sumawong, Anannit, 2013. "The (de)merits of minimum-variance hedging: Application to the crack spread," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 698-707.
    33. Alizadeh, Amir H. & Nomikos, Nikos K. & Pouliasis, Panos K., 2008. "A Markov regime switching approach for hedging energy commodities," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(9), pages 1970-1983, September.
    34. Ghoddusi, Hamed & Emamzadehfard, Sahar, 2017. "Optimal hedging in the US natural gas market: The effect of maturity and cointegration," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 92-105.
    35. Ji, Qiang & Bouri, Elie & Roubaud, David & Shahzad, Syed Jawad Hussain, 2018. "Risk spillover between energy and agricultural commodity markets: A dependence-switching CoVaR-copula model," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 14-27.
    36. Chevallier, Julien, 2010. "Modelling risk premia in CO2 allowances spot and futures prices," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 717-729, May.
    37. Basher, Syed Abul & Sadorsky, Perry, 2016. "Hedging emerging market stock prices with oil, gold, VIX, and bonds: A comparison between DCC, ADCC and GO-GARCH," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 235-247.
    38. Philippe Artzner & Freddy Delbaen & Jean‐Marc Eber & David Heath, 1999. "Coherent Measures of Risk," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(3), pages 203-228, July.
    39. repec:dau:papers:123456789/5269 is not listed on IDEAS
    40. Parkinson, Aidan & Guthrie, Peter, 2014. "Evaluating the energy performance of buildings within a value at risk framework with demonstration on UK offices," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 133(C), pages 40-55.
    41. Duan, Hongbo & Mo, Jianlei & Fan, Ying & Wang, Shouyang, 2018. "Achieving China's energy and climate policy targets in 2030 under multiple uncertainties," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 45-60.
    42. Chang, Chiao-Yi & Lai, Jing-Yi & Chuang, I-Yuan, 2010. "Futures hedging effectiveness under the segmentation of bear/bull energy markets," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 442-449, March.
    43. Banihashemi, Shokoofeh & Navidi, Sarah, 2017. "Portfolio performance evaluation in Mean-CVaR framework: A comparison with non-parametric methods value at risk in Mean-VaR analysis," Operations Research Perspectives, Elsevier, vol. 4(C), pages 21-28.
    44. repec:dau:papers:123456789/5109 is not listed on IDEAS
    45. Youssef, Manel & Belkacem, Lotfi & Mokni, Khaled, 2015. "Value-at-Risk estimation of energy commodities: A long-memory GARCH–EVT approach," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 99-110.
    46. Cotter, John & Hanly, Jim, 2012. "A utility based approach to energy hedging," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 817-827.
    47. Ma, Chenghu & Wong, Wing-Keung, 2010. "Stochastic dominance and risk measure: A decision-theoretic foundation for VaR and C-VaR," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 207(2), pages 927-935, December.
    48. Ji, Qiang & Fan, Ying, 2011. "A dynamic hedging approach for refineries in multiproduct oil markets," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 881-887.
    49. Aloui, Chaker & Mabrouk, Samir, 2010. "Value-at-risk estimations of energy commodities via long-memory, asymmetry and fat-tailed GARCH models," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(5), pages 2326-2339, May.
    50. Reboredo, Juan C. & Ugando, Mikel, 2015. "Downside risks in EU carbon and fossil fuel markets," Mathematics and Computers in Simulation (MATCOM), Elsevier, vol. 111(C), pages 17-35.
    51. Sukcharoen, Kunlapath & Leatham, David J., 2017. "Hedging downside risk of oil refineries: A vine copula approach," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 493-507.
    52. Boulis Maher Ibrahim & Iordanis Angelos Kalaitzoglou, 2016. "Why do carbon prices and price volatility change?," Post-Print hal-01267062, HAL.
    53. Alizadeh, Amir H. & Huang, Chih-Yueh & van Dellen, Stefan, 2015. "A regime switching approach for hedging tanker shipping freight rates," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 44-59.
    54. Segnon, Mawuli & Lux, Thomas & Gupta, Rangan, 2017. "Modeling and forecasting the volatility of carbon dioxide emission allowance prices: A review and comparison of modern volatility models," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 692-704.
    55. Rockafellar, R. Tyrrell & Uryasev, Stanislav, 2002. "Conditional value-at-risk for general loss distributions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(7), pages 1443-1471, July.
    56. Hemmati, Reza & Saboori, Hedayat & Saboori, Saeid, 2016. "Stochastic risk-averse coordinated scheduling of grid integrated energy storage units in transmission constrained wind-thermal systems within a conditional value-at-risk framework," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 762-775.
    57. Tompkins, Robert G. & D'Ecclesia, Rita L., 2006. "Unconditional return disturbances: A non-parametric simulation approach," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 287-314, January.
    58. Dayong Zhang, 2018. "Energy Finance: Background, Concept, and Recent Developments," Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 54(8), pages 1687-1692, June.
    59. Jiao, Lei & Liao, Yin & Zhou, Qing, 2018. "Predicting carbon market risk using information from macroeconomic fundamentals," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 212-227.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Antonio Díaz & Gonzalo García-Donato & Andrés Mora-Valencia, 2019. "Quantifying Risk in Traditional Energy and Sustainable Investments," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(3), pages 1-22, January.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Shrestha, Keshab & Subramaniam, Ravichandran & Peranginangin, Yessy & Philip, Sheena Sara Suresh, 2018. "Quantile hedge ratio for energy markets," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 253-272.
    2. Shrestha, Keshab & Subramaniam, Ravichandran & Rassiah, Puspavathy, 2017. "Pure martingale and joint normality tests for energy futures contracts," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 174-184.
    3. George E. Halkos & Apostolos S. Tsirivis, 2019. "Energy Commodities: A Review of Optimal Hedging Strategies," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(20), pages 1-19, October.
    4. Wang, Yudong & Geng, Qianjie & Meng, Fanyi, 2019. "Futures hedging in crude oil markets: A comparison between minimum-variance and minimum-risk frameworks," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 181(C), pages 815-826.
    5. Antonio Díaz & Gonzalo García-Donato & Andrés Mora-Valencia, 2019. "Quantifying Risk in Traditional Energy and Sustainable Investments," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(3), pages 1-22, January.
    6. Friedrich, Marina & Mauer, Eva-Maria & Pahle, Michael & Tietjen, Oliver, 2020. "From fundamentals to financial assets: the evolution of understanding price formation in the EU ETS," EconStor Preprints 225210, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics.
    7. Friedrich, Marina & Mauer, Eva-Maria & Pahle, Michael & Tietjen, Oliver, 2020. "From fundamentals to financial assets: the evolution of understanding price formation in the EU ETS," EconStor Preprints 196150, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics.
    8. Billio, Monica & Casarin, Roberto & Osuntuyi, Anthony, 2018. "Markov switching GARCH models for Bayesian hedging on energy futures markets," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 545-562.
    9. Jim Hanly, 2017. "Managing Energy Price Risk using Futures Contracts: A Comparative Analysis," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 3).
    10. Zhu, Bangzhu & Ye, Shunxin & Han, Dong & Wang, Ping & He, Kaijian & Wei, Yi-Ming & Xie, Rui, 2019. "A multiscale analysis for carbon price drivers," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 202-216.
    11. Tan, Xue-Ping & Wang, Xin-Yu, 2017. "Dependence changes between the carbon price and its fundamentals: A quantile regression approach," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 190(C), pages 306-325.
    12. Sukcharoen, Kunlapath & Leatham, David J., 2017. "Hedging downside risk of oil refineries: A vine copula approach," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 493-507.
    13. Halkos, George & Tsirivis, Apostolos, 2019. "Using Value-at-Risk for effective energy portfolio risk management," MPRA Paper 91674, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Cui, Yan & Feng, Yun, 2020. "Composite hedge and utility maximization for optimal futures hedging," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 15-32.
    15. Furió, Dolores & Torró, Hipòlit, 2020. "Optimal hedging under biased energy futures markets," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(C).
    16. Halkos, George E. & Tsirivis, Apostolos S., 2019. "Value-at-risk methodologies for effective energy portfolio risk management," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 197-212.
    17. Panos K. Pouliasis & Ilias D. Visvikis & Nikos C. Papapostolou & Alexander A. Kryukov, 2020. "A novel risk management framework for natural gas markets," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 40(3), pages 430-459, March.
    18. Wenjun Chu & Shanglei Chai & Xi Chen & Mo Du, 2020. "Does the Impact of Carbon Price Determinants Change with the Different Quantiles of Carbon Prices? Evidence from China ETS Pilots," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(14), pages 1-19, July.
    19. Liu, Pan & Vedenov, Dmitry & Power, Gabriel J., 2017. "Is hedging the crack spread no longer all it's cracked up to be?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 31-40.
    20. Federico Galán-Valdivieso & Elena Villar-Rubio & María-Dolores Huete-Morales, 2018. "The erratic behaviour of the EU ETS on the path towards consolidation and price stability," International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 18(5), pages 689-706, October.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:eneeco:v:76:y:2018:i:c:p:64-75. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Haili He). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/eneco .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.