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Downside risk and the energy hedger's horizon

Author

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  • Thomas Conlon

    (Smurfit School of Business, University College Dublin)

  • John Cotter

    (UCD Smurfit School of Business, University College Dublin)

Abstract

In this paper, we explore the impact of investor time-horizon on an optimal downside hedged energy portfolio. Previous studies have shown that minimum-variance hedging effectiveness improves for longer horizons using variance as the performance metric. This paper investigates whether this result holds for different hedging objectives and effectiveness measures. A wavelet transform is applied to calculate the optimal heating oil hedge ratio using a variety of downside objective functions at different time-horizons. We demonstrate decreased hedging effectiveness for increased levels of uncertainty at higher confidence intervals. Moreover, for each of the different hedging objectives and effectiveness measures studied, we also demonstrate increasing hedging effectiveness at longer horizons. While small differences in effectiveness are found across the different hedging objectives, time-horizon effects are found to dominate confirming the importance of considering the hedgers horizon. The findings suggest that while downside risk measures are useful in the computation of an optimal hedge ratio that accounts for unwanted negative returns, hedging horizon and confidence intervals should also be given careful consideration by the energy hedger.

Suggested Citation

  • Thomas Conlon & John Cotter, 2012. "Downside risk and the energy hedger's horizon," Working Papers 201219, Geary Institute, University College Dublin.
  • Handle: RePEc:ucd:wpaper:201219
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Furió, Dolores & Torró, Hipòlit, 2020. "Optimal hedging under biased energy futures markets," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(C).
    2. Gong, Xu & Wen, Fenghua & Xia, X.H. & Huang, Jianbai & Pan, Bin, 2017. "Investigating the risk-return trade-off for crude oil futures using high-frequency data," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 196(C), pages 152-161.
    3. Bredin, Don & Conlon, Thomas & Potì, Valerio, 2017. "The price of shelter - Downside risk reduction with precious metals," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 48-58.
    4. Shrestha, Keshab & Subramaniam, Ravichandran & Peranginangin, Yessy & Philip, Sheena Sara Suresh, 2018. "Quantile hedge ratio for energy markets," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 253-272.
    5. Thomas Conlon & Brian M. Lucey & Gazi Salah Uddin, 2018. "Is gold a hedge against inflation? A wavelet time-scale perspective," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 51(2), pages 317-345, August.
    6. Gatfaoui, Hayette, 2019. "Diversifying portfolios of U.S. stocks with crude oil and natural gas: A regime-dependent optimization with several risk measures," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 80(C), pages 132-152.
    7. Shrestha, Keshab & Subramaniam, Ravichandran & Rassiah, Puspavathy, 2017. "Pure martingale and joint normality tests for energy futures contracts," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 174-184.
    8. Bessler, Wolfgang & Conlon, Thomas & Huan, Xing, 2019. "Does corporate hedging enhance shareholder value? A meta-analysis," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 222-232.
    9. Arunanondchai, Panit & Sukcharoen, Kunlapath & Leatham, David J., 2020. "Dealing with tail risk in energy commodity markets: Futures contracts versus exchange-traded funds," Journal of Commodity Markets, Elsevier, vol. 20(C).
    10. Wang, Yudong & Geng, Qianjie & Meng, Fanyi, 2019. "Futures hedging in crude oil markets: A comparison between minimum-variance and minimum-risk frameworks," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 181(C), pages 815-826.
    11. Bredin, Don & Conlon, Thomas & Potì, Valerio, 2015. "Does gold glitter in the long-run? Gold as a hedge and safe haven across time and investment horizon," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 320-328.
    12. Spencer, Simon & Bredin, Don & Conlon, Thomas, 2018. "Energy and agricultural commodities revealed through hedging characteristics: Evidence from developing and mature markets," Journal of Commodity Markets, Elsevier, vol. 9(C), pages 1-20.
    13. Antonio Díaz & Gonzalo García-Donato & Andrés Mora-Valencia, 2019. "Quantifying Risk in Traditional Energy and Sustainable Investments," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(3), pages 1-22, January.
    14. Conlon, Thomas & Corbet, Shaen & McGee, Richard J., 2020. "Are cryptocurrencies a safe haven for equity markets? An international perspective from the COVID-19 pandemic," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 54(C).
    15. Sukcharoen, Kunlapath & Leatham, David J., 2017. "Hedging downside risk of oil refineries: A vine copula approach," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 493-507.
    16. Chai, Shanglei & Zhou, P., 2018. "The Minimum-CVaR strategy with semi-parametric estimation in carbon market hedging problems," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 64-75.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Energy Hedging; Futures Hedging; Wavelet Transform; Hedging Horizon; Downside Risk;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G10 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - General (includes Measurement and Data)
    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates
    • G15 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - International Financial Markets

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