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Hedging and value at risk


  • Richard D. F. Harris
  • Jian Shen


In this article, it is shown that although minimum‐variance hedging unambiguously reduces the standard deviation of portfolio returns, it can increase both left skewness and kurtosis; consequently the effectiveness of hedging in terms of value at risk (VaR) and conditional value at risk (CVaR) is uncertain. The reduction in daily standard deviation is compared with the reduction in 1‐day 99% VaR and CVaR for 20 cross‐hedged currency portfolios with the use of historical simulation. On average, minimum‐variance hedging reduces both VaR and CVaR by about 80% of the reduction in standard deviation. Also investigated, as an alternative to minimum‐variance hedging, are minimum‐VaR and minimum‐CVaR hedging strategies that minimize the historical‐simulation VaR and CVaR of the hedge portfolio, respectively. The in‐sample results suggest that in terms of VaR and CVaR reduction, minimum‐VaR and minimum‐CVaR hedging can potentially yield small but consistent improvements over minimum‐variance hedging. The out‐of‐sample results are more mixed, although there is a small improvement for minimum‐VaR hedging for the majority of the currencies considered. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Jrl Fut Mark 26:369–390, 2006

Suggested Citation

  • Richard D. F. Harris & Jian Shen, 2006. "Hedging and value at risk," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 26(4), pages 369-390, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:wly:jfutmk:v:26:y:2006:i:4:p:369-390

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    Cited by:

    1. Yang (Greg) Hou & Mark Holmes, 2020. "Do higher order moments of return distribution provide better decisions in minimum-variance hedging? Evidence from US stock index futures," Australian Journal of Management, Australian School of Business, vol. 45(2), pages 240-265, May.
    2. Yu‐Sheng Lai, 2018. "Estimation of the optimal futures hedge ratio for equity index portfolios using a realized beta generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity model," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 38(11), pages 1370-1390, November.
    3. Halkos, George & Tsirivis, Apostolos, 2019. "Using Value-at-Risk for effective energy portfolio risk management," MPRA Paper 91674, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Vera Mirovic & Dejan Zivkov & Jovan Njegic, 2017. "Construction of Commodity Portfolio and Its Hedge Effectiveness Gauging – Revisiting DCC Models," Czech Journal of Economics and Finance (Finance a uver), Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, vol. 67(5), pages 396-422, October.
    5. Huang, Jinbo & Ding, Ashley & Li, Yong & Lu, Dong, 2020. "Increasing the risk management effectiveness from higher accuracy: A novel non-parametric method," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 62(C).
    6. Jim Hanly, 2017. "Managing Energy Price Risk using Futures Contracts: A Comparative Analysis," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 3).
    7. Wenming Shi & Kevin X. Li & Zhongzhi Yang & Ganggang Wang, 2017. "Time-varying copula models in the shipping derivatives market," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 53(3), pages 1039-1058, November.
    8. Conlon, Thomas & Cotter, John, 2013. "Downside risk and the energy hedger's horizon," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 371-379.
    9. Ubukata, Masato, 2018. "Dynamic hedging performance and downside risk: Evidence from Nikkei index futures," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 270-281.
    10. Richard D. F. Harris & Jian Shen & Evarist Stoja, 2010. "The Limits to Minimum‐Variance Hedging," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 37(5‐6), pages 737-761, June.
    11. Cotter, John & Hanly, Jim, 2015. "Performance of utility based hedges," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 718-726.
    12. Barbi, Massimiliano & Romagnoli, Silvia, 2018. "Skewness, basis risk, and optimal futures demand," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 14-29.
    13. Kuang-Liang Chang, 2011. "The optimal value-at-risk hedging strategy under bivariate regime switching ARCH framework," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(21), pages 2627-2640.
    14. Capitani, Daniel H.D. & Mattos, Fabio, 2015. "Feasibility of new agricultural futures contract: a study in the Brazilian rice market," 2015 AAEA & WAEA Joint Annual Meeting, July 26-28, San Francisco, California 205565, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    15. Arunanondchai, Panit & Sukcharoen, Kunlapath & Leatham, David J., 2020. "Dealing with tail risk in energy commodity markets: Futures contracts versus exchange-traded funds," Journal of Commodity Markets, Elsevier, vol. 20(C).
    16. Jahangir Sultan & Antonios K. Alexandridis & Mohammad Hasan & Xuxi Guo, 2019. "Hedging performance of multiscale hedge ratios," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 39(12), pages 1613-1632, December.
    17. Halkos, George E. & Tsirivis, Apostolos S., 2019. "Value-at-risk methodologies for effective energy portfolio risk management," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 197-212.
    18. Sukcharoen, Kunlapath & Leatham, David J., 2017. "Hedging downside risk of oil refineries: A vine copula approach," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 493-507.

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