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Is there an Environmental Kuznets Curve for South Africa? A co-summability approach using a century of data

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  • Ben Nasr, Adnen
  • Gupta, Rangan
  • Sato, João Ricardo

Abstract

There exists a huge international literature on the, so-called, Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis, which in turn, postulates an inverted u-shaped relationship between environmental pollutants and output. The empirical literature on EKC has mainly used test for cointegration, based on polynomial relationships between pollution and income. Motivated by the fact that, measured in per capita CO2 equivalent emissions, South Africa is the world's most carbon-intensive non-oil-producing developing country, this paper aims to test the validity of the EKC for South Africa. For this purpose, we use a century of data (1911–2010), to capture the process of development better compared to short sample-based research; and the concept of co-summability, which is designed to analyze non-linear long-run relations among persistent processes. Our results, however, provide no support of the EKC for South Africa, both for the full-sample and sub-samples (determined by tests of structural breaks), implying that to reduce emissions without sacrificing growth, policies should be aimed at promoting energy efficiency.

Suggested Citation

  • Ben Nasr, Adnen & Gupta, Rangan & Sato, João Ricardo, 2015. "Is there an Environmental Kuznets Curve for South Africa? A co-summability approach using a century of data," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(PA), pages 136-141.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:eneeco:v:52:y:2015:i:pa:p:136-141
    DOI: 10.1016/j.eneco.2015.10.005
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    Cited by:

    1. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Sinha, Avik, 2018. "Environmental Kuznets Curve for CO2 Emission: A Literature Survey," MPRA Paper 86281, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 11 Apr 2018.
    2. Bouznit, Mohammed & Pablo-Romero, María del P., 2016. "CO2 emission and economic growth in Algeria," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 96(C), pages 93-104.
    3. Maralgua Och, 2017. "Empirical Investigation of the Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis for Nitrous Oxide Emissions for Mongolia," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 7(1), pages 117-128.
    4. Aslan Alper & Gozbasi Onur, 2016. "Environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis for sub-elements of the carbon emissions in China," Natural Hazards: Journal of the International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, Springer;International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, vol. 82(2), pages 1327-1340, June.
    5. repec:gam:jsusta:v:10:y:2018:i:5:p:1315-:d:142969 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Atif Awad & Mohammed Hersi Warsame, 2017. "Climate Changes in Africa: Does Economic Growth Matter? A Semi-parametric Approach," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 7(1), pages 1-8.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Environmental Kuznets Curve; CO2 emissions; Output; Co-summability; South Africa;

    JEL classification:

    • C01 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - General - - - Econometrics
    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes
    • Q53 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste; Recycling

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