IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/empfin/v13y2006i4-5p519-549.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

The impact of the introduction of the Euro on foreign exchange rate risk exposures

Author

Listed:
  • Bartram, Sohnke M.
  • Karolyi, G. Andrew

Abstract

This paper examines whether the introduction of the Euro was associated with lower stock return volatility, market risk exposures and foreign exchange rate risk exposures for 3,921 nonfinancial firms from 18 European countries, the United States and Japan. While the Euro led to a significant decrease in the volatility of trade-weighted exchange rates of European countries, stock market volatility generally increased, but less in the Euro area and Non-Euro Europe than outside of Europe. At the same time, the Euro was accompanied by significant reductions in market risk exposures for nonfinancial firms in and outside of Europe. We show that the reduction in market risk was not the result of changes in financial leverage, and that it is concentrated in firms with a high fraction of foreign sales or assets in Europe. Moreover, the Euro led to a net absolute decrease in the foreign exchange rate exposure of nonfinancial firms. Consistent with economic theory, the changes of market and foreign exchange rate betas of multinationals are shown to be a function of firm characteristics (sales, the percentage of foreign sales in general and in Europe in particular), regional factors (geography, strength of currency) and industry characteristics (competition, traded goods).
(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)

Suggested Citation

  • Bartram, Sohnke M. & Karolyi, G. Andrew, 2006. "The impact of the introduction of the Euro on foreign exchange rate risk exposures," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(4-5), pages 519-549, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:empfin:v:13:y:2006:i:4-5:p:519-549
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0927-5398(06)00036-3
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Kathryn M. E. Dominguez & Linda L. Tesar, 2001. "Trade and Exposure," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(2), pages 367-370, May.
    2. John Y. Campbell & Martin Lettau & Burton G. Malkiel & Yexiao Xu, 2001. "Have Individual Stocks Become More Volatile? An Empirical Exploration of Idiosyncratic Risk," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(1), pages 1-43, February.
    3. Bartram, Sohnke M., 2004. "Linear and nonlinear foreign exchange rate exposures of German nonfinancial corporations," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(4), pages 673-699, June.
    4. Doukas, John & Hall, Patricia H. & Lang, Larry H. P., 1999. "The pricing of currency risk in Japan," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 1-20, January.
    5. Bartov, Eli & Bodnar, Gordon M. & Kaul, Aditya, 1996. "Exchange rate variability and the riskiness of U.S. multinational firms: Evidence from the breakdown of the Bretton Woods system," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 105-132, September.
    6. Griffin, John M. & Andrew Karolyi, G., 1998. "Another look at the role of the industrial structure of markets for international diversification strategies," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(3), pages 351-373, December.
    7. Christie, Andrew A., 1982. "The stochastic behavior of common stock variances : Value, leverage and interest rate effects," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(4), pages 407-432, December.
    8. Söhnke M. Bartram & Gregory W. Brown & Frank R. Fehle, 2009. "International Evidence on Financial Derivatives Usage," Financial Management, Financial Management Association International, vol. 38(1), pages 185-206, March.
    9. Hodder, James E., 1982. "Exposure to exchange-rate movements," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(3-4), pages 375-386, November.
    10. Bodnar, Gordon M. & Gentry, William M., 1993. "Exchange rate exposure and industry characteristics: evidence from Canada, Japan, and the USA," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 29-45, February.
    11. Luigi Zingales & Raghuram G. Rajan, 2003. "Banks and Markets: The Changing Character of European Finance," NBER Working Papers 9595, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    12. Gordon M. Bodnar & M.H. Franco Wong, 2000. "Estimating Exchange Rate Exposures: Some "Weighty" Issues," NBER Working Papers 7497, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    13. Ferreira, Miguel A. & Gama, Paulo M., 2005. "Have World, Country, and Industry Risks Changed over Time? An Investigation of the Volatility of Developed Stock Markets," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 40(1), pages 195-222, March.
    14. Arturo Bris & Yrjö Koskinen & Mattias Nilsson, 2009. "The Euro and Corporate Valuations," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(8), pages 3171-3209, August.
    15. Williamson, Rohan, 2001. "Exchange rate exposure and competition: evidence from the automotive industry," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(3), pages 441-475, March.
    16. Prasad, Anita Mehra & Rajan, Murli, 1995. "The role of exchange and interest risk in equity valuation: A comparative study of international stock markets," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 47(5), pages 457-472, December.
    17. Fatemi, Ali M, 1984. "Shareholder Benefits from Corporate International Diversification," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 39(5), pages 1325-1344, December.
    18. Alejandro Micco & Ernesto H. Stein & Guillermo Luis Ordoñez, 2003. "The Currency Union Effect on Trade: Early Evidence from EMU," Research Department Publications 4339, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    19. Claude Lopez & David H. Papell, 2007. "Convergence to Purchasing Power Parity at the Commencement of the Euro," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 15(1), pages 1-16, February.
    20. Clarida, Richard H, 1997. "The Real Exchange Rate and US Manufacturing Profits: A Theoretical Framework with Some Empirical Support," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 2(3), pages 177-187, July.
    21. Bartov, Eli & Bodnar, Gordon M, 1994. "Firm Valuation, Earnings Expectations, and the Exchange-Rate Exposure Effect," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(5), pages 1755-1785, December.
    22. Jongmoo Jay Choi & Anita Mehra Prasad, 1995. "Exchange Risk Sensitivity and Its Determinants: A Firm and Industry Analysis of U.S. Multinationals," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 24(3), Fall.
    23. Flam, Harry & Nordström, Håkan, 2006. "Trade Volume Effects of the Euro: Aggregate and Sector Estimates," Seminar Papers 746, Stockholm University, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    24. Jia He & Lilian K. Ng, 1998. "The Foreign Exchange Exposure of Japanese Multinational Corporations," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(2), pages 733-753, April.
    25. Smith, Clifford W. & Stulz, René M., 1985. "The Determinants of Firms' Hedging Policies," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 20(4), pages 391-405, December.
    26. Froot, Kenneth A & Scharfstein, David S & Stein, Jeremy C, 1993. "Risk Management: Coordinating Corporate Investment and Financing Policies," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(5), pages 1629-1658, December.
    27. Danthine, Jean-Pierre & Giavazzi, Francesco & von Thadden, Ernst-Ludwig, 2000. "European Financial Markets After EMU: A First Assessment," CEPR Discussion Papers 2413, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    28. Morana, Claudio & Beltratti, Andrea, 2002. "The effects of the introduction of the euro on the volatility of European stock markets," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(10), pages 2047-2064, October.
    29. Allayannis, George & Ihrig, Jane, 2001. "Exposure and Markups," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 14(3), pages 805-835.
    30. Jorion, Philippe, 1990. "The Exchange-Rate Exposure of U.S. Multinationals," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 63(3), pages 331-345, July.
    31. Jorion, Philippe, 1991. "The Pricing of Exchange Rate Risk in the Stock Market," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 26(3), pages 363-376, September.
    32. Arturo Bris & Yrjö Koskinen & Mattias Nilsson, 2006. "The Real Effects of the Euro: Evidence from Corporate Investments," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 10(1), pages 1-37.
    33. Griffin, John M & Stulz, Rene M, 2001. "International Competition and Exchange Rate Shocks: A Cross-Country Industry Analysis of Stock Returns," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 14(1), pages 215-241.
    34. Fratzscher, Marcel, 2002. "Financial Market Integration in Europe: On the Effects of EMU on Stock Markets," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 7(3), pages 165-193, July.
    35. Karolyi, G. Andrew & Stulz, Rene M., 2003. "Are financial assets priced locally or globally?," Handbook of the Economics of Finance, in: G.M. Constantinides & M. Harris & R. M. Stulz (ed.), Handbook of the Economics of Finance, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 16, pages 975-1020, Elsevier.
    36. Geczy, Christopher & Minton, Bernadette A & Schrand, Catherine, 1997. "Why Firms Use Currency Derivatives," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(4), pages 1323-1354, September.
    37. Allayannis, George & Ofek, Eli, 2001. "Exchange rate exposure, hedging, and the use of foreign currency derivatives," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 273-296, April.
    38. Gordon M. Bodnar & Gregory S. Hayt & Richard C. Marston, 1996. "1995 Wharton Survey of Derivatives Usage by US Non-Financial Firms," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 25(4), Winter.
    39. Juann H. Hung, 1992. "Assessing the exchange rate's impact on U.S. manufacturing profits," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, vol. 17(Win), pages 44-63.
    40. Amit Goyal & Pedro Santa-Clara, 2003. "Idiosyncratic Risk Matters!," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(3), pages 975-1008, June.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Söhnke M. Bartram & Gordon M. Bodnar, 2007. "The exchange rate exposure puzzle," Managerial Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 33(9), pages 642-666, August.
    2. Muller, Aline & Verschoor, Willem F.C., 2006. "Foreign exchange risk exposure: Survey and suggestions," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 385-410, October.
    3. Bartram, Söhnke M. & Bodnar, Gordon M., 2012. "Crossing the lines: The conditional relation between exchange rate exposure and stock returns in emerging and developed markets," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 766-792.
    4. Bartram, Sohnke M., 2007. "Corporate cash flow and stock price exposures to foreign exchange rate risk," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(5), pages 981-994, December.
    5. Belghitar, Yacine & Clark, Ephraim & Mefteh, Salma, 2013. "Foreign currency derivative use and shareholder value," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 283-293.
    6. Bartram, Sohnke M., 2004. "Linear and nonlinear foreign exchange rate exposures of German nonfinancial corporations," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(4), pages 673-699, June.
    7. Akay, Gokhan H. & Cifter, Atilla, 2014. "Exchange rate exposure at the firm and industry levels: Evidence from Turkey," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 426-434.
    8. Muller, Aline & Verschoor, Willem F.C., 2006. "Asymmetric foreign exchange risk exposure: Evidence from U.S. multinational firms," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(4-5), pages 495-518, October.
    9. Hoberg, Gerard & Moon, S. Katie, 2017. "Offshore activities and financial vs operational hedging," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 125(2), pages 217-244.
    10. Chang, Feng-Yi & Hsin, Chin-Wen & Shiah-Hou, Shin-Rong, 2013. "A re-examination of exposure to exchange rate risk: The impact of earnings management and currency derivative usage," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 3243-3257.
    11. Kuzmina, Olga & Kuznetsova, Olga, 2018. "Operational and financial hedging: Evidence from export and import behavior," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 109-121.
    12. Bartram, Söhnke M., 2008. "What lies beneath: Foreign exchange rate exposure, hedging and cash flows," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1508-1521, August.
    13. Dominguez, Kathryn M.E. & Tesar, Linda L., 2006. "Exchange rate exposure," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 188-218, January.
    14. Francis, Bill B. & Hasan, Iftekhar & Hunter, Delroy M., 2008. "Can hedging tell the full story? Reconciling differences in United States aggregate- and industry-level exchange rate risk premium," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(2), pages 169-196, November.
    15. Hutson, Elaine & Laing, Elaine, 2014. "Foreign exchange exposure and multinationality," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 97-113.
    16. Francis, Bill B. & Hasan, Iftekhar & Hunter, Delroy M. & Zhu, Yun, 2017. "Do managerial risk-taking incentives influence firms' exchange rate exposure?," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 154-169.
    17. Horst Entorf & Gösta Jamin, 2007. "German Exchange Rate Exposure at DAX and Aggregate Levels, International Trade and the Role of Exchange Rate Adjustment Costs," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 8(3), pages 344-374, August.
    18. Hutson, Elaine & O'Driscoll, Anthony, 2010. "Firm-level exchange rate exposure in the Eurozone," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 468-478, October.
    19. Lee, Seul Ki & Jang, SooCheong (Shawn), 2011. "Foreign exchange exposure of US tourism-related firms," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 934-948.
    20. Bartram, Söhnke M. & Brown, Gregory W. & Minton, Bernadette A., 2010. "Resolving the exposure puzzle: The many facets of exchange rate exposure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(2), pages 148-173, February.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • F30 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - General

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:empfin:v:13:y:2006:i:4-5:p:519-549. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jempfin .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jempfin .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.