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Inequality of opportunity for educational achievement in Latin America: Evidence from PISA 2006–2009

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  • Gamboa, Luis Fernando
  • Waltenberg, Fábio D.

Abstract

We evaluate how far away six Latin American countries stand from a normative goal of equality of opportunity for educational achievement in PISA 2006–2009. We work with alternative characterizations of types: gender, school type (public or private), parental education, and their combinations. Following Checchi–Peragine's (2010) non-parametric method, we find that inequality of opportunity for educational achievement in Latin America ranges from less than 1% to up to 25%, depending on the year, the country, the subject and the specification of circumstances. These magnitudes are substantial with respect to what is found in comparator countries. Parental education and school type prove to be important sources of inequality of opportunity, contrary to gender. By means of sensitivity analyses, while most results show small to moderate variation in terms of magnitudes, in ordinal terms (rankings) they remain quite stable. Brazil stands out as the most opportunity-unequal country of the sample.

Suggested Citation

  • Gamboa, Luis Fernando & Waltenberg, Fábio D., 2012. "Inequality of opportunity for educational achievement in Latin America: Evidence from PISA 2006–2009," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 31(5), pages 694-708.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ecoedu:v:31:y:2012:i:5:p:694-708
    DOI: 10.1016/j.econedurev.2012.05.002
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    Cited by:

    1. Rajius Idzalika & Maria C. Lo Bue, 2016. "Opportunities in education: are factors outside individual responsibility really persistent? Evidence from Indonesia, 1997-2007," Working Papers 397, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
    2. David (David Patrick) Madden, 2014. "Bridging the Gaps: Inequalities in Childrens' Educational Outcomes in Ireland," Working Papers 201420, School of Economics, University College Dublin.
    3. Aysit Tansel, 2015. "Inequality of Opportunities of Educational Achievement in Turkey over Time," Koç University-TUSIAD Economic Research Forum Working Papers 1506, Koc University-TUSIAD Economic Research Forum.
    4. Alexandre BERTHE, 2016. "Inequalities in the access to water and sanitation services in the North and the Nordeste of Brazil: what lessons for social justice?," Cahiers du GREThA 2016-07, Groupe de Recherche en Economie Théorique et Appliquée.
    5. Francisco H. G. Ferreira & Jérémie Gignoux, 2014. "The Measurement of Educational Inequality: Achievement and Opportunity," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 28(2), pages 210-246.
    6. Luis Fernando Gamboa & Erika Londoño, 2015. "Assessing Educational Unfair Inequalities at a Regional Level in Colombia," Lecturas de Economía, Universidad de Antioquia, Departamento de Economía, issue 83, pages 97-133, Julio - D.
    7. Geovanny Castro Aristizabal & Marcela Diaz Rosero & Jairo Tobar Bedoya, 2016. "Causas de las diferencias en desempeño escolar entre los colegios públicos y privados: Colombia en las pruebas SABER11 2014," Working Papers 26, Faculty of Economics and Management, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali.
    8. Fabio Waltenberg & Marcia De Carvalho & Luis Fernando Gamboa, 2016. "Measuring Inequality Of Opportunity In Education By Combining Information On Coverage And Achievement In Pisa," Anais do XLII Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 42ndd Brazilian Economics Meeting] 218, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
    9. Juan C. Palomino & Gustavo A. Marrero & Juan G. Rodriguez, 2016. "Channels of inequality of opportunity: The role of education and occupation in Europe," Working Papers 411, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Equality of opportunities; Equity; Education; Latin America;

    JEL classification:

    • I24 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Education and Inequality
    • D63 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
    • O54 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Latin America; Caribbean

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