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Inequality of opportunity for educational achievement in Latin America: Evidence from PISA 2006–2009

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  • Gamboa, Luis Fernando
  • Waltenberg, Fábio D.

Abstract

We evaluate how far away six Latin American countries stand from a normative goal of equality of opportunity for educational achievement in PISA 2006–2009. We work with alternative characterizations of types: gender, school type (public or private), parental education, and their combinations. Following Checchi–Peragine's (2010) non-parametric method, we find that inequality of opportunity for educational achievement in Latin America ranges from less than 1% to up to 25%, depending on the year, the country, the subject and the specification of circumstances. These magnitudes are substantial with respect to what is found in comparator countries. Parental education and school type prove to be important sources of inequality of opportunity, contrary to gender. By means of sensitivity analyses, while most results show small to moderate variation in terms of magnitudes, in ordinal terms (rankings) they remain quite stable. Brazil stands out as the most opportunity-unequal country of the sample.

Suggested Citation

  • Gamboa, Luis Fernando & Waltenberg, Fábio D., 2012. "Inequality of opportunity for educational achievement in Latin America: Evidence from PISA 2006–2009," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 31(5), pages 694-708.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ecoedu:v:31:y:2012:i:5:p:694-708
    DOI: 10.1016/j.econedurev.2012.05.002
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Juan C. Palomino & Gustavo A. Marrero & Juan G. Rodríguez, 2019. "Channels of Inequality of Opportunity: The Role of Education and Occupation in Europe," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 143(3), pages 1045-1074, June.
    2. Rajius Idzalika & Maria C. Lo Bue, 2016. "Opportunities in education: are factors outside individual responsibility really persistent? Evidence from Indonesia, 1997-2007," Working Papers 397, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
    3. repec:ijs:ancoec:v:14:y:2018:i:28:p:57-74 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Francisco H. G. Ferreira & Jérémie Gignoux, 2014. "The Measurement of Educational Inequality: Achievement and Opportunity," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 28(2), pages 210-246.
    5. Castro Aristizabal, Geovanny & Giménez, Gregorio & Pérez Ximénez-de-Embún, Domingo, 2018. "Estimation of factors conditioning the acquisition of academic skills in Latin America in the presence of endogeneity," Revista CEPAL, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL), April.
    6. Sarmiento Espinel, Jaime Andrés & Silva Arias, Adriana Carolina & van Gameren, Edwin, 2019. "Evolution of the inequality of educational opportunities from secondary education to university," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 193-202.
    7. Recep BİNDAK, 0. "Lojistik Regresyon Analizi ile Pisa Araştırmasında Öğrenci Başarısının Modellenmesi," EKOIST Journal of Econometrics and Statistics, Istanbul University, Faculty of Economics, vol. 14(28), pages 57-74.
    8. Tommaso Agasisti & Sergio Longobardi & Vincenzo Prete & Felice Russo, 2018. "Multidimensional poverty measures for analysing educational poverty in European countries," Working papers 73, Società Italiana di Economia Pubblica.
    9. Tansel, Aysit, 2015. "Inequality of Opportunities of Educational Achievement in Turkey over Time," IZA Discussion Papers 9005, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    10. Geovanny Castro Aristizabal & Marcela Diaz Rosero & Jairo Tobar Bedoya, 2016. "Causas de las diferencias en desempeño escolar entre los colegios públicos y privados: Colombia en las pruebas SABER11 2014," Working Papers 26, Faculty of Economics and Management, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali.
    11. Pr Henri Atangana Ondoa, 2018. "The effects of heavily indebted poor countries initiative (HIPC) on millennium development goals (MDGs) for education," Review of Social Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 76(4), pages 453-479, October.
    12. Flaviana Palmisano & Vito Peragine & Federico Biagi, 2019. "Inequality of opportunity in tertiary education in Europe," JRC Working Papers JRC118543, Joint Research Centre (Seville site).
    13. Luis Fernando Gamboa & Erika Londoño, 2015. "Assessing Educational Unfair Inequalities at a Regional Level in Colombia," Lecturas de Economía, Universidad de Antioquia, Departamento de Economía, issue 83, pages 97-133, Julio - D.
    14. Fabio Waltenberg & Marcia De Carvalho & Luis Fernando Gamboa, 2016. "Measuring Inequality Of Opportunity In Education By Combining Information On Coverage And Achievement In Pisa," Anais do XLII Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 42nd Brazilian Economics Meeting] 218, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pós-Graduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
    15. David Madden, 2018. "Bridging the gaps: inequalities in children’s educational outcomes in Ireland," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 16(1), pages 103-122, March.
    16. Alexandre BERTHE, 2016. "Inequalities in the access to water and sanitation services in the North and the Nordeste of Brazil: what lessons for social justice?," Cahiers du GREThA (2007-2019) 2016-07, Groupe de Recherche en Economie Théorique et Appliquée (GREThA).
    17. Chandan Sharma & Sudharshan Reddy Paramati, 2018. "Measuring Inequality of Opportunity for the Backward Communities: Regional Evidence from the Indian Labour Market," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 138(2), pages 479-503, July.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Equality of opportunities; Equity; Education; Latin America;

    JEL classification:

    • I24 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Education and Inequality
    • D63 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
    • O54 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Latin America; Caribbean

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