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Inequality of opportunity in educational achievement in Latin America: Evidence from PISA 2006-2009

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  • Luis Fernando Gamboa

    (Universidad del Rosario, Colombia)

  • Fábio D. Waltenberg

    (Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brazil)

Abstract

We assess inequality of opportunity in educational achievement in six Latin American countries, employing two waves of PISA data (2006 and 2009). By means of a non-parametric approach using a decomposable inequality index, GE(0), we rank countries according to their degree of inequality of opportunity. We work with alternative characterizations of types: school type (public or private), gender, parental education, and combinations of those variables. We calculate ?incremental contributions? of each set of circumstances to inequality. We provide rankings of countries based on unconditional inequalities (using conventional indices) and on conditional inequalities (EOp indices), and the two sets of rankings do not always coincide. Inequality of opportunities ranges from less than 1% to up to 27%, with substantial heterogeneity according to the year, the country, the subject and the specification of circumstances. Robustness checks based on bootstrap and the use of an alternative index confirm most of the initial results.

Suggested Citation

  • Luis Fernando Gamboa & Fábio D. Waltenberg, 2011. "Inequality of opportunity in educational achievement in Latin America: Evidence from PISA 2006-2009," Working Papers 206, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
  • Handle: RePEc:inq:inqwps:ecineq2011-206
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    Cited by:

    1. Tansel, Aysit, 2015. "Inequality of Opportunities of Educational Achievement in Turkey over Time," IZA Discussion Papers 9005, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    2. Francisco H. G. Ferreira & Jérémie Gignoux, 2014. "The Measurement of Educational Inequality: Achievement and Opportunity," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 28(2), pages 210-246.
    3. Binelli, Chiara & Rubio-Codina, Marta, 2013. "The Returns to Private Education: Evidence from Mexico," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 198-215.
    4. Márcia de Carvalho & Luis Fernando Gamboa & Fábio D. Waltenberg, 2012. "Equality of Educational Ppportunity Employing PISA Data: Taking both Achievement and Access into Account," Working Papers 277, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
    5. Tansel, Aysit, 2015. "Inequality of Opportunities of Educational Achievement in Turkey over Time," IZA Discussion Papers 9005, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    6. Patrizia Luongo, 2015. "Inequality of Opportunity in Educational Achievements: Cross-country and Intertemporal Comparisons," WIDER Working Paper Series wp-2015-043, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    7. Zelda Brutti, 2016. "Cities drifting apart: Heterogeneous outcomes of decentralizing public education," Working Papers 2016/26, Institut d'Economia de Barcelona (IEB).
    8. Patrizia Luongo, 2015. "Inequality of opportunity in educational achievements: Cross-country and intertemporal comparisons," WIDER Working Paper Series 043, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    9. Francisco H. G. Ferreira & Jérémie Gignoux, 2014. "The Measurement of Educational Inequality: Achievement and Opportunity," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 28(2), pages 210-246.
    10. Natalia Krüger & Luis Fernando Gamboa & Fábio Waltenberg, 2014. "Gross Inequality and Inequality of Opportunities in Basic Education: Were they affected by Latin America’s Economic Boom?," Documentos de Trabajo 012322, Universidad del Rosario.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Inequality of Opportunity; economics of education; Latin America.;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D63 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
    • I24 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Education and Inequality
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration

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