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Inequality of opportunity in educational achievement in Latin America: Evidence from PISA 2006-2009

  • Luis Fernando Gamboa

    ()

    (Universidad del Rosario, Colombia)

  • Fábio D. Waltenberg

    ()

    (Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brazil)

We assess inequality of opportunity in educational achievement in six Latin American countries, employing two waves of PISA data (2006 and 2009). By means of a non-parametric approach using a decomposable inequality index, GE(0), we rank countries according to their degree of inequality of opportunity. We work with alternative characterizations of types: school type (public or private), gender, parental education, and combinations of those variables. We calculate ?incremental contributions? of each set of circumstances to inequality. We provide rankings of countries based on unconditional inequalities (using conventional indices) and on conditional inequalities (EOp indices), and the two sets of rankings do not always coincide. Inequality of opportunities ranges from less than 1% to up to 27%, with substantial heterogeneity according to the year, the country, the subject and the specification of circumstances. Robustness checks based on bootstrap and the use of an alternative index confirm most of the initial results.

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File URL: http://www.ecineq.org/milano/WP/ECINEQ2011-206.pdf
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Paper provided by ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality in its series Working Papers with number 206.

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Length: 29 pages
Date of creation: 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:inq:inqwps:ecineq2011-206
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.ecineq.org
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  1. Fabio D. Waltenberg & Vincent Vandenberghe, 2006. "What Does It Take To Achieve Equality Of Opportunity In Education? An Empirical Investigation Based On Brazilian Data," Anais do XXXIV Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 34th Brazilian Economics Meeting] 89, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
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  3. Ferreira , Francisco H. G. & Gignoux, Jeremie, 2008. "The measurement of inequality of opportunity : theory and an application to Latin America," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4659, The World Bank.
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  17. Daniele Checchi & Vito Peragine & Laura Serlenga, 2010. "Fair and unfair income inequalities in Europe," Working Papers 174, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
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