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Inequality of opportunity in educational achievement in Latin America: evidence from PISA 2006-2009

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  • Luis Fernando Gamboa

    ()

  • Fábio D. Waltenberg

    ()

Abstract

We assess inequality of opportunity in educational achievement in six Latin American countries, employing two waves of PISA data (2006 and 2009). By means of a non-parametric approach using a decomposable inequality index, GE(0), we rank countries according to their degree of inequality of opportunity. We work with alternative characterizations of types: school type (public or private), gender, parental education, and combinations of those variables. We calculate "incremental contributions" of each set of circumstances to inequality. We provide rankings of countries based on unconditional inequalities (using conventional indices) and on conditional inequalities (EOp indices), and the two sets of rankings do not always coincide. Inequality of opportunities range from less than 1% to up to 27%, with substantial heterogeneity according to the year, the country, the subject and the specificication of circumstances. Robustness checks based on bootstrap and the use of an alternative index confirm most of the initial results.

Suggested Citation

  • Luis Fernando Gamboa & Fábio D. Waltenberg, 2011. "Inequality of opportunity in educational achievement in Latin America: evidence from PISA 2006-2009," DOCUMENTOS DE TRABAJO 008895, UNIVERSIDAD DEL ROSARIO.
  • Handle: RePEc:col:000092:008895
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    Cited by:

    1. Aysit Tansel, 2015. "Inequality of Opportunities of Educational Achievement in Turkey over Time," Koç University-TUSIAD Economic Research Forum Working Papers 1506, Koc University-TUSIAD Economic Research Forum.
    2. Binelli, Chiara & Rubio-Codina, Marta, 2013. "The Returns to Private Education: Evidence from Mexico," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 198-215.
    3. Márcia de Carvalho & Luis Fernando Gamboa & Fábio D. Waltenberg, 2012. "Equality of Educational Ppportunity Employing PISA Data: Taking both Achievement and Access into Account," Working Papers 277, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
    4. Francisco H. G. Ferreira & Jérémie Gignoux, 2014. "The Measurement of Educational Inequality: Achievement and Opportunity," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 28(2), pages 210-246.
    5. Natalia Krüger & Luis Fernando Gamboa & Fábio Waltenberg, 2014. "Gross Inequality and Inequality of Opportunities in Basic Education: Were they affected by Latin America’s Economic Boom?," DOCUMENTOS DE TRABAJO 012322, UNIVERSIDAD DEL ROSARIO.
    6. Francisco H. G. Ferreira & Jérémie Gignoux, 2011. "The Measurement of Educational Inequality: Achievement and Opportunity," Working Papers halshs-00646594, HAL.
    7. Zelda Brutti, 2016. "Cities drifting apart: Heterogeneous outcomes of decentralizing public education," Working Papers 2016/26, Institut d'Economia de Barcelona (IEB).
    8. Luongo Patrizia, 2015. "Inequality of Opportunity in Educational Achievements: Cross-country and Intertemporal Comparisons," WIDER Working Paper Series 043, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).

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    Keywords

    Inequality of Opportunity; economics of education; Latin America;

    JEL classification:

    • D63 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
    • I24 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Education and Inequality
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration

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