IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/ecanpo/v74y2022icp188-204.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

How do farm size and perceptions matter for farmers’ adaptation responses to climate change in a developing country? Evidence from Nepal

Author

Listed:
  • Koirala, Pankaj
  • Kotani, Koji
  • Managi, Shunsuke

Abstract

Farm size and climatic perceptions are important economic and cognitive factors for farmers’ activities. However, little is known about how these factors are related to farmers’ responsiveness to climate change. This research addresses what matters for farmers’ responses to climate change, hypothesizing that farm size, climatic perceptions and the interplay between the two are key determinants. We conduct a questionnaire survey with 1000 farmers in Nepal, collecting data on their adaptation responses, farm size, climatic perceptions and sociodemographic information. With the data, the statistical analysis is conducted by employing an index to reflect the farmers’ effective adaptation responses. The results reveal that farmers take adaptations as the farm size becomes small, or when they have good climatic perceptions & social networks with other farmers. The results also show that small-sized farmers tend to adapt much more in response to their climatic perceptions than large-sized farmers. Overall, this research suggests that agriculture may be losing responsiveness to climate change, as large-sized farmers become dominant by holding a majority of land in developing countries. Thus, it is advisable to reconsider the tradeoff between productivity and responsiveness to climate change regarding farm size as well as how large-sized farmers can be induced to adapt through their cognition, policies, social networking and technology for food security.

Suggested Citation

  • Koirala, Pankaj & Kotani, Koji & Managi, Shunsuke, 2022. "How do farm size and perceptions matter for farmers’ adaptation responses to climate change in a developing country? Evidence from Nepal," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 188-204.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ecanpo:v:74:y:2022:i:c:p:188-204
    DOI: 10.1016/j.eap.2022.01.014
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0313592622000145
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1016/j.eap.2022.01.014?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Uttam Babu Shrestha & Asheshwor Man Shrestha & Suman Aryal & Sujata Shrestha & Madhu Sudan Gautam & Hemant Ojha, 2019. "Climate change in Nepal: a comprehensive analysis of instrumental data and people’s perceptions," Climatic Change, Springer, vol. 154(3), pages 315-334, June.
    2. Mills, David E & Schumann, Laurence, 1985. "Industry Structure with Fluctuating Demand," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(4), pages 758-767, September.
    3. Muhammad Ashraf & Jayant Routray & Muhammad Saeed, 2014. "Determinants of farmers’ choice of coping and adaptation measures to the drought hazard in northwest Balochistan, Pakistan," Natural Hazards: Journal of the International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, Springer;International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, vol. 73(3), pages 1451-1473, September.
    4. Aboubacar Diallo & Emmanuel Donkor & Victor Owusu, 2020. "Climate change adaptation strategies, productivity and sustainable food security in southern Mali," Climatic Change, Springer, vol. 159(3), pages 309-327, April.
    5. Kumar, Anjani & Takeshima, Hiroyuki & Thapa, Ganesh & Adhikari, Naveen & Saroj, Sunil & Karkee, Madhab & Joshi, P.K., 2020. "Adoption and diffusion of improved technologies and production practices in agriculture: Insights from a donor-led intervention in Nepal," Land Use Policy, Elsevier, vol. 95(C).
    6. Jayatilleke S. Bandara & Yiyong Cai, 2014. "The impact of climate change on food crop productivity, food prices and food security in South Asia," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(4), pages 451-465.
    7. Ganesh Thapa & Anjani Kumar & P.K. Joshi (ed.), 2019. "Agricultural Transformation in Nepal," Springer Books, Springer, number 978-981-32-9648-0, June.
    8. Foster, Andrew D & Rosenzweig, Mark R, 1995. "Learning by Doing and Learning from Others: Human Capital and Technical Change in Agriculture," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 103(6), pages 1176-1209, December.
    9. Cools, Jan & Innocenti, Demetrio & O’Brien, Sarah, 2016. "Lessons from flood early warning systems," Environmental Science & Policy, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 117-122.
    10. Oriana Bandiera & Imran Rasul, 2006. "Social Networks and Technology Adoption in Northern Mozambique," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 116(514), pages 869-902, October.
    11. J. Arbuckle & Lois Morton & Jon Hobbs, 2013. "Farmer beliefs and concerns about climate change and attitudes toward adaptation and mitigation: Evidence from Iowa," Climatic Change, Springer, vol. 118(3), pages 551-563, June.
    12. Piya, Luni & Maharjan, Keshav Lall & Joshi, Niraj Prakash, 2012. "Vulnerability of rural households to climate change and extremes: Analysis of Chepang households in the Mid-Hills of Nepal," 2012 Conference, August 18-24, 2012, Foz do Iguacu, Brazil 126191, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    13. Khanal, Uttam & Wilson, Clevo & Hoang, Viet-Ngu & Lee, Boon, 2018. "Farmers' Adaptation to Climate Change, Its Determinants and Impacts on Rice Yield in Nepal," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 144(C), pages 139-147.
    14. Trinh, Thoai Quang & Rañola, Roberto F. & Camacho, Leni D. & Simelton, Elisabeth, 2018. "Determinants of farmers’ adaptation to climate change in agricultural production in the central region of Vietnam," Land Use Policy, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 224-231.
    15. Timilsina, Raja R. & Kotani, Koji & Nakagawa, Yoshinori & Saijo, Tatsuyoshi, 2022. "Intragenerational deliberation and intergenerational sustainability dilemma," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 73(C).
    16. Joshua E. Cinner & W. Neil Adger & Edward H. Allison & Michele L. Barnes & Katrina Brown & Philippa J. Cohen & Stefan Gelcich & Christina C. Hicks & Terry P. Hughes & Jacqueline Lau & Nadine A. Marsha, 2018. "Building adaptive capacity to climate change in tropical coastal communities," Nature Climate Change, Nature, vol. 8(2), pages 117-123, February.
    17. Khan, Imran & Lei, Hongdou & Shah, Irshad Ali & Ali, Imad & Khan, Inayat & Muhammad, Ihsan & Huo, Xuexi & Javed, Tehseen, 2020. "Farm households’ risk perception, attitude and adaptation strategies in dealing with climate change: Promise and perils from rural Pakistan," Land Use Policy, Elsevier, vol. 91(C).
    18. Ahmed, Zobaer & Guha, Gauri S. & Shew, Aaron M. & Alam, G.M. Monirul, 2021. "Climate change risk perceptions and agricultural adaptation strategies in vulnerable riverine char islands of Bangladesh," Land Use Policy, Elsevier, vol. 103(C).
    19. Qiangsheng Hu & Xiaorong He, 2018. "An Integrated Approach to Evaluate Urban Adaptive Capacity to Climate Change," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 10(4), pages 1-17, April.
    20. Mst Asma Khatun & Shibly Shahrier & Koji Kotani, 2020. "Cooperation and cognition gaps for salinity: A field experiment of information provision," Working Papers SDES-2020-4, Kochi University of Technology, School of Economics and Management, revised Jun 2020.
    21. Nanda Kaji Budhathoki & Douglas Paton & Jonatan A. Lassa & Gopal Datt Bhatta & Kerstin K. Zander, 2020. "Heat, cold, and floods: exploring farmers’ motivations to adapt to extreme weather events in the Terai region of Nepal," Natural Hazards: Journal of the International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, Springer;International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, vol. 103(3), pages 3213-3237, September.
    22. Mostafa E. Shahen & Wada Masaya & Koji Kotani & Tatsuyoshi Saijo, 2020. "Motivational Factors in Intergenerational Sustainability Dilemma: A Post-Interview Analysis," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 12(17), pages 1-16, August.
    23. Koenker, Roger W & Bassett, Gilbert, Jr, 1978. "Regression Quantiles," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(1), pages 33-50, January.
    24. Timilsina, Raja R & Kotani, Koji & Nakagawa, Yoshinori & Saijo, Tatsuyoshi, 2021. "Concerns for future generations in societies: A deliberative analysis of the intergenerational sustainability dilemma," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 90(C).
    25. Proscovia Renzaho Ntakyo & Marrit Berg, 2019. "Effect of market production on rural household food consumption: evidence from Uganda," Food Security: The Science, Sociology and Economics of Food Production and Access to Food, Springer;The International Society for Plant Pathology, vol. 11(5), pages 1051-1070, October.
    26. Islam, Moinul & Kotani, Koji & Managi, Shunsuke, 2016. "Climate perception and flood mitigation cooperation: A Bangladesh case study," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 117-133.
    27. Ramírez, Octavio A. & Shultz, Steven D., 2000. "Poisson Count Models to Explain the Adoption of Agricultural and Natural Resource Management Technologies by Small Farmers in Central American Countries," Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 32(1), pages 21-33, April.
    28. Ward Anseeuw & Thomas Jayne & Richard Kachule & John Kotsopoulos, 2016. "The Quiet Rise of Medium-Scale Farms in Malawi," Land, MDPI, vol. 5(3), pages 1-22, June.
    29. Avi Fiegenbaum & Aneel Karnani, 1991. "Output flexibility—A competitive advantage for small firms," Strategic Management Journal, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 12(2), pages 101-114, February.
    30. Roger Koenker & Kevin F. Hallock, 2001. "Quantile Regression," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 15(4), pages 143-156, Fall.
    31. Shobha Poudel & Shinya Funakawa & Hitoshi Shinjo, 2017. "Household Perceptions about the Impacts of Climate Change on Food Security in the Mountainous Region of Nepal," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 9(4), pages 1-20, April.
    32. Thomas B. Yaméogo & William M. Fonta & Tobias Wünscher, 2018. "Can Social Capital influence Smallholder Farmers’ Climate-Change Adaptation Decisions? Evidence from Three Semi-Arid Communities in Burkina Faso, West Africa," Social Sciences, MDPI, vol. 7(3), pages 1-20, February.
    33. Anton Eitzinger & Claudia R. Binder & Markus A. Meyer, 2018. "Risk perception and decision-making: do farmers consider risks from climate change?," Climatic Change, Springer, vol. 151(3), pages 507-524, December.
    34. T.S. Jayne & Jordan Chamberlin & Lulama Traub & Nicholas Sitko & Milu Muyanga & Felix K. Yeboah & Ward Anseeuw & Antony Chapoto & Ayala Wineman & Chewe Nkonde & Richard Kachule, 2016. "Africa's changing farm size distribution patterns: the rise of medium-scale farms," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 47(S1), pages 197-214, November.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Xu, Zhan & Liang, Zhengyuan & Cheng, Jiali & Groot, Jeroen C.J. & Zhang, Chaochun & Cong, Wen-Feng & Zhang, Fusuo & van der Werf, Wopke, 2024. "Comparing the sustainability of smallholder and business farms in the North China Plain; a case study in Quzhou," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 216(C).
    2. Islam, Zeenatul & Sabiha, Noor E & Salim, Ruhul, 2022. "Integrated environment-smart agricultural practices: A strategy towards climate-resilient agriculture," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 59-72.
    3. Li, Tan & Qi, Yunyun & Chen, Min & Cao, Jing, 2023. "Balancing crop security and sustainable cropland use: Policy lessons from the Watershed Ecosystem Service Payments in Xin’an River, China," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 80(C), pages 861-879.
    4. Dependra Bhatta & Krishna P. Paudel & Kai Liu, 2023. "Factors influencing water conservation practices adoptions by Nepali farmers," Environment, Development and Sustainability: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Theory and Practice of Sustainable Development, Springer, vol. 25(10), pages 10879-10901, October.
    5. Ying Cheng & Zhongbao Liu & Yuan Hu & Weizhong Zeng, 2023. "The Influence of Farmers’ Cognition on Forest Land Transfer Behavior: A Case Study of Chengdu City," Land, MDPI, vol. 12(10), pages 1-14, October.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Abebe, Fentahun & Zuo, Alec & Wheeler, Sarah Ann & Bjornlund, Henning & Chilundo, Mario & Kissoly, Luitfred & Dube, Thabani, 2022. "The influences on farmers' planned and actual farm adaptation decisions: Evidence from small-scale irrigation schemes in South-Eastern Africa," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 202(C).
    2. Raja R. Timilsina & Yoshinori Nakagawa & Koji Kotani, 2020. "Exploring the Possibility of Linking and Incorporating Future Design in Backcasting and Scenario Planning," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 12(23), pages 1-14, November.
    3. Lim, Krisha & Wichmann, Bruno & Luckert, Martin, 2021. "Adaptation, spatial effects, and targeting: Evidence from Africa and Asia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 139(C).
    4. Kumar, Anjani & Takeshima, Hiroyuki & Thapa, Ganesh & Adhikari, Naveen & Saroj, Sunil & Karkee, Madhab & Joshi, P.K., 2020. "Adoption and diffusion of improved technologies and production practices in agriculture: Insights from a donor-led intervention in Nepal," Land Use Policy, Elsevier, vol. 95(C).
    5. Nguyen The Manh & Mokbul Morshed Ahmad, 2021. "Indigenous farmers' perception of climate change and the use of local knowledge to adapt to climate variability: A case study of Vietnam," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 33(7), pages 1189-1212, October.
    6. Chandio, Abbas Ali & Jiang, Yuansheng & Ahmad, Fayyaz & Adhikari, Salina & Ain, Qurat Ul, 2021. "Assessing the impacts of climatic and technological factors on rice production: Empirical evidence from Nepal," Technology in Society, Elsevier, vol. 66(C).
    7. Akosah, Nana Kwame & Alagidede, Imhotep Paul & Schaling, Eric, 2020. "Testing for asymmetry in monetary policy rule for small-open developing economies: Multiscale Bayesian quantile evidence from Ghana," The Journal of Economic Asymmetries, Elsevier, vol. 22(C).
    8. Paul Hewson & Keming Yu, 2008. "Quantile regression for binary performance indicators," Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 24(5), pages 401-418, September.
    9. Mekonnen, Daniel Ayalew & Gerber, Nicolas & Matz, Julia Anna, 2018. "Gendered Social Networks, Agricultural Innovations, and Farm Productivity in Ethiopia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 105(C), pages 321-335.
    10. Feng, Yao, 2011. "Local spillovers and learning from neighbors: Evidence from durable adoptions in rural China," MPRA Paper 33924, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. Trojanek, Radoslaw & Huderek-Glapska, Sonia, 2018. "Measuring the noise cost of aviation – The association between the Limited Use Area around Warsaw Chopin Airport and property values," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 103-114.
    12. Paulo M.M. Rodrigues & Rita Fradique Lourenço, 2015. "House prices: bubbles, exuberance or something else? Evidence from euro area countries," Working Papers w201517, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.
    13. Liverpool-Tasie, Lenis Saweda O. & Winter-Nelson, Alex, 2009. "Poverty status and the impact of social networks on smallholder technology adoption in rural Ethiopia," 2009 Annual Meeting, July 26-28, 2009, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 49357, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    14. Muller, Christophe, 2018. "Heterogeneity and nonconstant effect in two-stage quantile regression," Econometrics and Statistics, Elsevier, vol. 8(C), pages 3-12.
    15. Yayan Hernuryadin & Koji Kotani & Tatsuyoshi Saijo, 2020. "Time Preferences of Food Producers: Does “Cultivate and Grow” Matter?," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 96(1), pages 132-148.
    16. Ariel BenYishay & A. Mushfiq Mobarak, 2014. "Social Learning and Communication," NBER Working Papers 20139, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    17. Klomp, Jeroen, 2013. "Government interventions and default risk: Does one size fit all?," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 641-653.
    18. Bampinas, Georgios & Panagiotidis, Theodore, 2016. "Hedging inflation with individual US stocks: A long-run portfolio analysis," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 374-392.
    19. Strike Mbulawa & Francis Nathan Okurut & Mogale Ntsosa & Narain Sinha, 2020. "Dynamics of Corporate Dividend Policy under Hyperinflation and Dollarization: A Quantile Regression Approach," International Journal of Business and Economic Sciences Applied Research (IJBESAR), International Hellenic University (IHU), Kavala Campus, Greece (formerly Eastern Macedonia and Thrace Institute of Technology - EMaTTech), vol. 13(3), pages 70-82, December.
    20. Magnan, Nicholas & Spielman, David J. & Lybbert, Travis J. & Gulati, Kajal, 2015. "Leveling with friends: Social networks and Indian farmers' demand for a technology with heterogeneous benefits," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 116(C), pages 223-251.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:ecanpo:v:74:y:2022:i:c:p:188-204. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.journals.elsevier.com/economic-analysis-and-policy .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.