IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/appene/v147y2015icp617-626.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

A performance evaluation of the energy, environmental, and economic efficiency and productivity in China: An application of global data envelopment analysis

Author

Listed:
  • Wang, Zhaohua
  • Feng, Chao

Abstract

The current mode of economic development in China is typified by high growth, high energy consumption, and high pollution characteristics and this has caused great stress on both energy consumption and the environment. This paper focuses on a historical analysis of China’s energy, environmental, and economic (‘E3’) efficiency and the sources of E3 productivity growth therein. A developed slacks-based measure is utilized to evaluate the performance of E3 efficiency and decompose the performance fluctuations into three components: energy, economy, and environmental efficiency fluctuations. By applying a method based on global data envelopment analysis, we also analyze the key factors responsible for the change in E3 productivity during 2002–11 from the point of view of technical progress, production scale, and management level. The results show that China performs well on the economic front, while the energy and environmental performances are not optimistic. Fortunately, energy and environmental efficiency have gradually improved in recent years. Further analysis shows that the trend in E3 productivity in China has begun to follow an ascending path. Technical progress is the most powerful contributor to China’s E3 productivity growth, while falling scale and management efficiency are the two main obstacles preventing improvement in E3 productivity.

Suggested Citation

  • Wang, Zhaohua & Feng, Chao, 2015. "A performance evaluation of the energy, environmental, and economic efficiency and productivity in China: An application of global data envelopment analysis," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 147(C), pages 617-626.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:appene:v:147:y:2015:i:c:p:617-626
    DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.01.108
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306261915001440
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Lansink, Alfons Oude & Reinhard, Stijn, 2004. "Investigating technical efficiency and potential technological change in Dutch pig farming," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 79(3), pages 353-367, March.
    2. Chu Wei & Jinlan Ni & Manhong Shen, 2009. "Empirical Analysis of Provincial Energy Efficiency in China," China & World Economy, Institute of World Economics and Politics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, vol. 17(5), pages 88-103, September.
    3. Luenberger, David G., 1992. "Benefit functions and duality," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(5), pages 461-481.
    4. Yu, Yan & Wen, Zongguo, 2010. "Evaluating China's urban environmental sustainability with Data Envelopment Analysis," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(9), pages 1748-1755, July.
    5. Färe, Rolf & Grosskopf, Shawna, 2010. "Directional distance functions and slacks-based measures of efficiency: Some clarifications," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 206(3), pages 702-702, November.
    6. Honma, Satoshi & Hu, Jin-Li, 2009. "Total-factor energy productivity growth of regions in Japan," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(10), pages 3941-3950, October.
    7. Wang, Chunhua, 2007. "Decomposing energy productivity change: A distance function approach," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1326-1333.
    8. Zhang, Chunhong & Liu, Haiying & Bressers, Hans Th.A. & Buchanan, Karen S., 2011. "Productivity growth and environmental regulations - accounting for undesirable outputs: Analysis of China's thirty provincial regions using the Malmquist–Luenberger index," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(12), pages 2369-2379.
    9. Shi, Guang-Ming & Bi, Jun & Wang, Jin-Nan, 2010. "Chinese regional industrial energy efficiency evaluation based on a DEA model of fixing non-energy inputs," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(10), pages 6172-6179, October.
    10. Wang, Zhao-Hua & Zeng, Hua-Lin & Wei, Yi-Ming & Zhang, Yi-Xiang, 2012. "Regional total factor energy efficiency: An empirical analysis of industrial sector in China," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 97(C), pages 115-123.
    11. Ang, James B., 2008. "Economic development, pollutant emissions and energy consumption in Malaysia," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 271-278.
    12. Zhang, Ning & Zhou, P. & Choi, Yongrok, 2013. "Energy efficiency, CO2 emission performance and technology gaps in fossil fuel electricity generation in Korea: A meta-frontier non-radial directional distance functionanalysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 653-662.
    13. Rolf Färe & Shawna Grosskopf, 2003. "Nonparametric Productivity Analysis with Undesirable Outputs: Comment," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 85(4), pages 1070-1074.
    14. Choi, Yongrok & Zhang, Ning & Zhou, P., 2012. "Efficiency and abatement costs of energy-related CO2 emissions in China: A slacks-based efficiency measure," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 98(C), pages 198-208.
    15. Dyckhoff, H. & Allen, K., 2001. "Measuring ecological efficiency with data envelopment analysis (DEA)," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 132(2), pages 312-325, July.
    16. Dong-hyun Oh, 2010. "A global Malmquist-Luenberger productivity index," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 34(3), pages 183-197, December.
    17. Liang, Qi & Teng, Jian-Zhou, 2006. "Financial development and economic growth: Evidence from China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 395-411.
    18. Tulkens, Henry & Vanden Eeckaut, Philippe, 1995. "Non-parametric efficiency, progress and regress measures for panel data: Methodological aspects," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 80(3), pages 474-499, February.
    19. Wang, Ke & Wei, Yi-Ming & Zhang, Xian, 2013. "Energy and emissions efficiency patterns of Chinese regions: A multi-directional efficiency analysis," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 105-116.
    20. Weibin Lin & Jin Yang & Bin Chen, 2011. "Temporal and Spatial Analysis of Integrated Energy and Environment Efficiency in China Based on a Green GDP Index," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 4(9), pages 1-15, September.
    21. Hu, Jin-Li & Wang, Shih-Chuan, 2006. "Total-factor energy efficiency of regions in China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(17), pages 3206-3217, November.
    22. Fukuyama, Hirofumi & Weber, William L., 2009. "A directional slacks-based measure of technical inefficiency," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 43(4), pages 274-287, December.
    23. Bowden, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2009. "The causal relationship between U.S. energy consumption and real output: A disaggregated analysis," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 180-188.
    24. Berg, Sigbjorn Atle & Forsund, Finn R & Jansen, Eilev S, 1992. " Malmquist Indices of Productivity Growth during the Deregulation of Norwegian Banking, 1980-89," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 94(0), pages 211-228, Supplemen.
    25. Zhou, P. & Ang, B.W. & Poh, K.L., 2008. "A survey of data envelopment analysis in energy and environmental studies," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 189(1), pages 1-18, August.
    26. Liu, John S. & Lu, Louis Y.Y. & Lu, Wen-Min & Lin, Bruce J.Y., 2013. "A survey of DEA applications," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 41(5), pages 893-902.
    27. Wang, Ke & Wei, Yi-Ming & Zhang, Xian, 2012. "A comparative analysis of China’s regional energy and emission performance: Which is the better way to deal with undesirable outputs?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 574-584.
    28. Zhang, Xiaohong & Wu, Liqian & Zhang, Rong & Deng, Shihuai & Zhang, Yanzong & Wu, Jun & Li, Yuanwei & Lin, Lili & Li, Li & Wang, Yinjun & Wang, Lilin, 2013. "Evaluating the relationships among economic growth, energy consumption, air emissions and air environmental protection investment in China," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 18(C), pages 259-270.
    29. Wang, H. & Zhou, P. & Zhou, D.Q., 2013. "Scenario-based energy efficiency and productivity in China: A non-radial directional distance function analysis," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 795-803.
    30. Watanabe, Michio & Tanaka, Katsuya, 2007. "Efficiency analysis of Chinese industry: A directional distance function approach," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(12), pages 6323-6331, December.
    31. Färe, Rolf & Grosskopf, Shawna, 2010. "Directional distance functions and slacks-based measures of efficiency," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 200(1), pages 320-322, January.
    32. repec:dau:papers:123456789/11438 is not listed on IDEAS
    33. Zhou, P. & Ang, B.W. & Wang, H., 2012. "Energy and CO2 emission performance in electricity generation: A non-radial directional distance function approach," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 221(3), pages 625-635.
    34. Chen, Po-Chi & Yu, Ming-Miin & Chang, Ching-Cheng & Hsu, Shih-Hsun, 2008. "Total factor productivity growth in China's agricultural sector," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 580-593, December.
    35. Oh, Dong-hyun & Heshmati, Almas, 2010. "A sequential Malmquist-Luenberger productivity index: Environmentally sensitive productivity growth considering the progressive nature of technology," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(6), pages 1345-1355, November.
    36. Atakelty Hailu & Terrence S. Veeman, 2001. "Non-parametric Productivity Analysis with Undesirable Outputs: An Application to the Canadian Pulp and Paper Industry," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 83(3), pages 605-616.
    37. Charnes, A. & Cooper, W. W. & Rhodes, E., 1978. "Measuring the efficiency of decision making units," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 2(6), pages 429-444, November.
    38. Wu, F. & Fan, L.W. & Zhou, P. & Zhou, D.Q., 2012. "Industrial energy efficiency with CO2 emissions in China: A nonparametric analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 164-172.
    39. Honma, Satoshi & Hu, Jin-Li, 2008. "Total-factor energy efficiency of regions in Japan," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 821-833, February.
    40. Jinghai Zheng & Angang Hu, 2006. "An Empirical Analysis of Provincial Productivity in China (1979-2001)," Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 4(3), pages 221-239.
    41. Stijn Reinhard & C.A. Knox Lovell & Geert Thijssen, 1999. "Econometric Estimation of Technical and Environmental Efficiency: An Application to Dutch Dairy Farms," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 81(1), pages 44-60.
    42. He, Feng & Zhang, Qingzhi & Lei, Jiasu & Fu, Weihui & Xu, Xiaoning, 2013. "Energy efficiency and productivity change of China’s iron and steel industry: Accounting for undesirable outputs," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 204-213.
    43. McIntyre, Robert J. & Thornton, James R., 1974. "Environmental divergence: Air pollution in the USSR," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 1(2), pages 109-120, August.
    44. Forsund, Finn R., 2009. "Good Modelling of Bad Outputs: Pollution and Multiple-Output Production," International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics, now publishers, vol. 3(1), pages 1-38, August.
    45. Hailu, Atakelty & Veeman, Terrence S., 2000. "Environmentally Sensitive Productivity Analysis of the Canadian Pulp and Paper Industry, 1959-1994: An Input Distance Function Approach," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 251-274, November.
    46. Tone, Kaoru, 2001. "A slacks-based measure of efficiency in data envelopment analysis," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 130(3), pages 498-509, May.
    47. Sylviane GUILLAUMONT JEANNENEY & PING HUA & ZHICHENG LIANG, 2006. "Financial Development, Economic Efficiency, And Productivity Growth: Evidence From China," The Developing Economies, Institute of Developing Economies, vol. 44(1), pages 27-52, March.
    48. Wei, Yi-Ming & Liao, Hua & Fan, Ying, 2007. "An empirical analysis of energy efficiency in China's iron and steel sector," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 32(12), pages 2262-2270.
    49. Ouedraogo, Nadia S., 2013. "Energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from the economic community of West African States (ECOWAS)," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 637-647.
    50. Guo, Xiao-Dan & Zhu, Lei & Fan, Ying & Xie, Bai-Chen, 2011. "Evaluation of potential reductions in carbon emissions in Chinese provinces based on environmental DEA," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 2352-2360, May.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Wang, Zhaohua & Feng, Chao, 2015. "Sources of production inefficiency and productivity growth in China: A global data envelopment analysis," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 380-389.
    2. Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki & Yuan, Yan & Goto, Mika, 2017. "A literature study for DEA applied to energy and environment," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 104-124.
    3. Mardani, Abbas & Zavadskas, Edmundas Kazimieras & Streimikiene, Dalia & Jusoh, Ahmad & Khoshnoudi, Masoumeh, 2017. "A comprehensive review of data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach in energy efficiency," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 1298-1322.
    4. Zhou, Haibo & Yang, Yi & Chen, Yao & Zhu, Joe, 2018. "Data envelopment analysis application in sustainability: The origins, development and future directions," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 264(1), pages 1-16.
    5. Lin, Boqiang & Du, Kerui, 2015. "Energy and CO2 emissions performance in China's regional economies: Do market-oriented reforms matter?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 113-124.
    6. Zhang, Ning & Zhou, Peng & Kung, Chih-Chun, 2015. "Total-factor carbon emission performance of the Chinese transportation industry: A bootstrapped non-radial Malmquist index analysis," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 584-593.
    7. Meng, Fanyi & Su, Bin & Thomson, Elspeth & Zhou, Dequn & Zhou, P., 2016. "Measuring China’s regional energy and carbon emission efficiency with DEA models: A survey," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 183(C), pages 1-21.
    8. Yu, Dejian & He, Xiaorong, 2020. "A bibliometric study for DEA applied to energy efficiency: Trends and future challenges," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 268(C).
    9. Qin, Quande & Li, Xin & Li, Li & Zhen, Wei & Wei, Yi-Ming, 2017. "Air emissions perspective on energy efficiency: An empirical analysis of China’s coastal areas," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 185(P1), pages 604-614.
    10. Wang, Ke & Wei, Yi-Ming, 2016. "Sources of energy productivity change in China during 1997–2012: A decomposition analysis based on the Luenberger productivity indicator," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 50-59.
    11. Ke Wang & Xueying Yu, 2017. "Industrial Energy and Environment Efficiency of Chinese Cities: An Analysis Based on Range-Adjusted Measure," International Journal of Information Technology & Decision Making (IJITDM), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 16(04), pages 1023-1042, July.
    12. Wang, H. & Zhou, P. & Zhou, D.Q., 2013. "Scenario-based energy efficiency and productivity in China: A non-radial directional distance function analysis," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 795-803.
    13. Halkos, George & Petrou, Kleoniki Natalia, 2019. "Treating undesirable outputs in DEA: A critical review," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 97-104.
    14. Wang, Zhaohua & Feng, Chao & Zhang, Bin, 2014. "An empirical analysis of China's energy efficiency from both static and dynamic perspectives," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 322-330.
    15. Zhang, Ning & Wei, Xiao, 2015. "Dynamic total factor carbon emissions performance changes in the Chinese transportation industry," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 146(C), pages 409-420.
    16. Zhou, D.Q. & Wang, Qunwei & Su, B. & Zhou, P. & Yao, L.X., 2016. "Industrial energy conservation and emission reduction performance in China: A city-level nonparametric analysis," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 166(C), pages 201-209.
    17. Hang, Ye & Sun, Jiasen & Wang, Qunwei & Zhao, Zengyao & Wang, Yizhong, 2015. "Measuring energy inefficiency with undesirable outputs and technology heterogeneity in Chinese cities," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 46-52.
    18. Feng, Chao & Zhang, Hua & Huang, Jian-Bai, 2017. "The approach to realizing the potential of emissions reduction in China: An implication from data envelopment analysis," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 859-872.
    19. Alizadeh, Reza & Gharizadeh Beiragh, Ramin & Soltanisehat, Leili & Soltanzadeh, Elham & Lund, Peter D., 2020. "Performance evaluation of complex electricity generation systems: A dynamic network-based data envelopment analysis approach," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(C).
    20. Wang, Zhaohua & He, Weijun & Wang, Bo, 2017. "Performance and reduction potential of energy and CO2 emissions among the APEC's members with considering the return to scale," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 138(C), pages 552-562.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:appene:v:147:y:2015:i:c:p:617-626. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Nithya Sathishkumar). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/405891/description#description .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.