IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this article

The Determinants of Investment Rewards: Evidence for Selected Developed and Developing Countries

Listed author(s):
  • Bee-Hoong Tay

    (Department of Finance, Faculty of Business Management, Universiti Teknologi MARA Kampus Johor, Km 12, 85900 Segamat, Johor, Malaysia)

  • Pei-Tha Gan

    (Department of Economics, Faculty of Management and Economics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris 35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak. Malaysia.)

Registered author(s):

    The empirical studies on investors’ investment reward rarely focus on the performance of excess returns across the developing and developed countries: Investment in the developing countries has higher risk thus requires higher return compared to developed countries. Therefore, study on investors’ investment reward cannot rule out the role of the performance of excess returns simply because of data mining, complex data collection process and misspecification of the model. The objective of this study is to examine the underlying determinants of investors’ investment reward on excess stock return such that provide better understanding on the fact that the developing countries has more risk compared to developed countries and the internal factors are important for investors in the investment decision making process. The findings of this study indicate that there is an equilibrium relationship between investors’ investment reward and its determinants, namely, risk premium of market, firm size and book-to-market value. In addition, the internal factors are important to the investors in making investment decisions and the relationships of the underlying determinants are prevalent in the developing countries. This study suggests that risk premium of market, firm size and book-to-market value can serve as indicators of the investors’ investment reward that provide better understanding that developing countries has more risk than developed countries. This study also suggests that the investors and policy makers should consider the role of the underlying determinants in the investors’ investment decision making process.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL: http://www.econjournals.com/index.php/ijefi/article/download/2417/pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: http://www.econjournals.com/index.php/ijefi/article/view/2417/pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Article provided by Econjournals in its journal International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues.

    Volume (Year): 6 (2016)
    Issue (Month): 3 ()
    Pages: 1180-1188

    as
    in new window

    Handle: RePEc:eco:journ1:2016-03-47
    Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.econjournals.com

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

    as
    in new window


    1. Thorbecke, Willem, 1997. " On Stock Market Returns and Monetary Policy," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(2), pages 635-654, June.
    2. Fama, Eugene F & French, Kenneth R, 1992. " The Cross-Section of Expected Stock Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(2), pages 427-465, June.
    3. Lakonishok, Josef & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W, 1994. " Contrarian Investment, Extrapolation, and Risk," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(5), pages 1541-1578, December.
    4. Konstantinos Kassimatis, 2008. "Size, Book to Market and Momentum Effects in the Australian Stock Market," Australian Journal of Management, Australian School of Business, vol. 33(1), pages 145-168, June.
    5. Alan Gregory & Rajesh Tharyan & Angela Christidis, 2013. "Constructing and Testing Alternative Versions of the Fama–French and Carhart Models in the UK," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(1-2), pages 172-214, January.
    6. Harvey, Campbell R. & Zhou, Guofu, 1993. "International asset pricing with alternative distributional specifications," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 107-131, June.
    7. Hartmann, Daniel & Kempa, Bernd & Pierdzioch, Christian, 2008. "Economic and financial crises and the predictability of U.S. stock returns," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 468-480, June.
    8. Gallegati, Marco, 2008. "Wavelet analysis of stock returns and aggregate economic activity," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 52(6), pages 3061-3074, February.
    9. Campbell, John Y, 1996. "Understanding Risk and Return," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 104(2), pages 298-345, April.
    10. Malcolm D. Knight, 1998. "Developing Countries and the Globalization of Financial Markets," IMF Working Papers 98/105, International Monetary Fund.
    11. Liang, Chin-Chia & Lin, Jeng-Bau & Hsu, Hao-Cheng, 2013. "Reexamining the relationships between stock prices and exchange rates in ASEAN-5 using panel Granger causality approach," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 560-563.
    12. Reinganum, Marc R, 1982. " A Direct Test of Roll's Conjecture on the Firm Size Effect," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 37(1), pages 27-35, March.
    13. Fama, Eugene F. & French, Kenneth R., 1989. "Business conditions and expected returns on stocks and bonds," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 23-49, November.
    14. Daniel, Kent & Titman, Sheridan, 1997. " Evidence on the Characteristics of Cross Sectional Variation in Stock Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(1), pages 1-33, March.
    15. Chen, Tsung-Cheng & Chien, Chin-Chen, 2011. "Size effect in January and cultural influences in an emerging stock market: The perspective of behavioral finance," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 208-229, April.
    16. Fama, Eugene F. & French, Kenneth R., 1993. "Common risk factors in the returns on stocks and bonds," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 3-56, February.
    17. Wong, Kie Ann, 1989. "The firm size effect on stock returns in a developing stock market," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 61-65.
    18. William F. Sharpe, 1964. "Capital Asset Prices: A Theory Of Market Equilibrium Under Conditions Of Risk," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 19(3), pages 425-442, 09.
    19. Bruner, Robert F. & Conroy, Robert M. & Estrada, Javier & Kritzman, Mark & Li, Wei, 2002. "Introduction to 'Valuation in Emerging Markets'," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 310-324, December.
    20. Robert Rutledge & Zhaohui Zhang & Khondkar Karim, 2008. "Is There a Size Effect in the Pricing of Stocks in the Chinese Stock Markets?: The Case of Bull Versus Bear Markets," Asia-Pacific Financial Markets, Springer;Japanese Association of Financial Economics and Engineering, vol. 15(2), pages 117-133, June.
    21. Fama, Eugene F, 1990. " Stock Returns, Expected Returns, and Real Activity," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(4), pages 1089-1108, September.
    22. Ferson, Wayne E. & Harvey, Campbell R., 1994. "Sources of risk and expected returns in global equity markets," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 775-803, September.
    23. Jakob B. Madsen & Ratbek Dzhumashev & Hui Yao, 2013. "Stock returns and economic growth," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(10), pages 1257-1271, April.
    24. Simon So & Gordon Tang, 2010. "An examination of conditional effect on cross-sectional returns: Singapore evidence," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(6), pages 777-795.
    25. Fama, Eugene F, 1981. "Stock Returns, Real Activity, Inflation, and Money," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(4), pages 545-565, September.
    26. Angelos Kanas, 2000. "Volatility Spillovers Between Stock Returns and Exchange Rate Changes: International Evidence," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 27(3&4), pages 447-467.
    27. Ralitsa Petkova, 2006. "Do the Fama-French Factors Proxy for Innovations in Predictive Variables?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 61(2), pages 581-612, 04.
    28. Moerman, Gerard A. & van Dijk, Mathijs A., 2010. "Inflation risk and international asset returns," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 840-855, April.
    29. Gabe de Bondt, 2005. "Does the credit risk premium lead the stock market?," Applied Financial Economics Letters, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 1(5), pages 263-268, September.
    30. Bekaert, Geert & Harvey, Campbell R., 1997. "Emerging equity market volatility," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 29-77, January.
    31. de Groot, Caspar G. M. & Verschoor, Willem F. C., 2002. "Further evidence on Asian stock return behavior," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 3(2), pages 179-193, June.
    32. Bagella, Michele & Becchetti, Leonardo & Carpentieri, Andrea, 2000. ""The first shall be last". Size and value strategy premia at the London Stock Exchange," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(6), pages 893-919, June.
    33. Shyh-Wei Chen & Nai-Chuan Huang, 2007. "Estimates of the ICAPM with regime-switching betas: evidence from four pacific rim economies," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(4), pages 313-327.
    34. Clive Gaunt, 2004. "Size and book to market effects and the Fama French three factor asset pricing model: evidence from the Australian stockmarket," Accounting and Finance, Accounting and Finance Association of Australia and New Zealand, vol. 44(1), pages 27-44.
    35. Granger, C W J, 1969. "Investigating Causal Relations by Econometric Models and Cross-Spectral Methods," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 37(3), pages 424-438, July.
    36. Henry, Ólan T., 2009. "Regime switching in the relationship between equity returns and short-term interest rates in the UK," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 405-414, February.
    37. Chen, Nai-fu & Zhang, Feng, 1998. "Risk and Return of Value Stocks," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 71(4), pages 501-535, October.
    38. Gozbasi, Onur & Kucukkaplan, Ilhan & Nazlioglu, Saban, 2014. "Re-examining the Turkish stock market efficiency: Evidence from nonlinear unit root tests," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 381-384.
    39. Lee, Bong Soo, 2010. "Stock returns and inflation revisited: An evaluation of the inflation illusion hypothesis," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 1257-1273, June.
    40. Knight, Malcolm, 1998. "Developing Countries and the Globalization of Financial Markets," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 26(7), pages 1185-1200, July.
    41. Savor, Pavel & Wilson, Mungo, 2014. "Asset pricing: A tale of two days," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 113(2), pages 171-201.
    42. Joseph T.L. Ooi & Kim-Hiang Liow, 2004. "Risk-Adjusted Performance of Real Estate Stocks: Evidence From Developing Markets," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 26(4), pages 371-396.
    43. John M. Griffin, 2002. "Are the Fama and French Factors Global or Country Specific?," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 15(3), pages 783-803.
    44. Toda, Hiro Y. & Yamamoto, Taku, 1995. "Statistical inference in vector autoregressions with possibly integrated processes," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 66(1-2), pages 225-250.
    45. Steil, Benn, 2001. "Creating Securities Markets in Developing Countries: A New Approach for the Age of Automated Trading," International Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 4(2), pages 257-278, Summer.
    46. Reinganum, Marc R., 1981. "Misspecification of capital asset pricing : Empirical anomalies based on earnings' yields and market values," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 19-46, March.
    47. Banz, Rolf W., 1981. "The relationship between return and market value of common stocks," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 3-18, March.
    48. Hodoshima, Jiro & Garza-Gomez, Xavier & Kunimura, Michio, 2000. "Cross-sectional regression analysis of return and beta in Japan," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 52(6), pages 515-533.
    49. Tano Santos & Pietro Veronesi, 2006. "Labor Income and Predictable Stock Returns," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 19(1), pages 1-44.
    50. Fama, Eugene F & French, Kenneth R, 1995. " Size and Book-to-Market Factors in Earnings and Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(1), pages 131-155, March.
    51. Shu-Chin Lin, 2009. "Inflation And Real Stock Returns Revisited," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 47(4), pages 783-795, October.
    52. Fama, Eugene F, 1991. " Efficient Capital Markets: II," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(5), pages 1575-1617, December.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eco:journ1:2016-03-47. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ilhan Ozturk)

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.