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Population and Resources: An Exploration of Reproductive and Environmental Externalities

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  • Partha Dasgupta

Abstract

This article identifies four types of social externalities associated with fertility behavior. Three are shown to be pronatalist in their effects. These three are exemplified by the way theories of economic growth treat fertility and natural resources, the way population growth and economic stress in poor countries are seen by environmental and resource economists, and the way development economists accommodate environmental stress in their analysis of poverty. It is shown that the fourth type of externality, in which children are regarded as an end in themselves, can even provide an invidious link between fertility decisions and the use of the local natural-resource base among poor rural households in poor countries. The fourth type is used to develop a theory of fertility transitions in the contemporary world; the theory views such transitions as disequilibrium phenomena. Copyright 2000 by The Population Council, Inc..

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  • Partha Dasgupta, 2000. "Population and Resources: An Exploration of Reproductive and Environmental Externalities," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 26(4), pages 643-689.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:popdev:v:26:y:2000:i:4:p:643-689
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Gary S. Becker, 1981. "A Treatise on the Family," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number beck81-1, April.
    2. Will Cavendish, 1999. "Poverty, inequality and environmental resources: quantitative analysis of rural households," CSAE Working Paper Series 1999-09, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
    3. William Cavendish, 1999. "Poverty, inequality and environmental resources: quantitative analysis of rural households," Economics Series Working Papers WPS/1999-09, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    4. Dreze, Jean & Murthi, Mamta, 2000. "Fertility, education and development: further evidence from India," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 6663, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    5. Richard A. Easterlin, 1980. "Population and Economic Change in Developing Countries," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number east80-1, April.
    6. Richard Easterlin, 1980. "Introduction to "Population and Economic Change in Developing Countries"," NBER Chapters,in: Population and Economic Change in Developing Countries, pages 1-4 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Robert Eastwood & Michael Lipton, 1999. "The impact of changes in human fertility on poverty," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(1), pages 1-30.
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    Cited by:

    1. Ahlburg, Dennis & Lindh, Thomas, 2007. "Long-run income forecasting," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 23(4), pages 533-538.
    2. Jöst, Frank & Quaas, Martin F., 2010. "Environmental and population externalities," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 15(01), pages 1-19, February.
    3. Tsangyao Chang & Hsiao-Ping Chu & Frederick W. Deale & Rangan Gupta & Stephen M. Miller, 2017. "The relationship between population growth and standard-of-living growth over 1870–2013: evidence from a bootstrapped panel Granger causality test," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 44(1), pages 175-201, February.
    4. Iyer, Sriya & Velu, Chander, 2006. "Real options and demographic decisions," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 80(1), pages 39-58, June.
    5. Frank Joest & Martin Quaas & Johannes Schiller, 2006. "Environmental problems and economic development in an endogenous fertility model," Working Papers 0428, University of Heidelberg, Department of Economics, revised Aug 2006.
    6. Shi, Anqing, 2003. "The impact of population pressure on global carbon dioxide emissions, 1975-1996: evidence from pooled cross-country data," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 29-42, February.
    7. repec:ipg:wpaper:2014-477 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Kirui, Oliver K. & Mirzabaev, Alisher, 2016. "Cost of land degradation and improvement in Eastern Africa," 2016 AAAE Fifth International Conference, September 23-26, 2016, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 249321, African Association of Agricultural Economists (AAAE).
    9. Patra, Nilanjan, 2008. "State-wise pattern of gender bias in child health in India," MPRA Paper 21435, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Kirui, Oliver K., 2016. "Impact of land degradation on household poverty: evidence from a panel data simultaneous equation model," 2016 AAAE Fifth International Conference, September 23-26, 2016, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 246396, African Association of Agricultural Economists (AAAE).
    11. Tsangyao Chang & Hsiao-Ping Chu & Frederick W. Deale & Rangan Gupta & Stephen M. Miller, 2014. "The Relationship between Population Growth and Economic Growth Over 1870-2013: Evidence from a Bootstrapped Panel-Granger Causality Test," Working Papers 201431, University of Pretoria, Department of Economics.

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