Incidence of forest income on reduction of inequality: Evidence from forest dependent households in milieu of joint forest management
This study suggests that there is a narrower scope to expand income inequality with the increase in forest source of income to total income relative to non-forest income irrespective of the type of forest fringe villages. The addition of forest income after joint forest management (JFM) reduces measured income inequality by about 12%, all else equal, in the JFM involved households. But no such perceptible decrease has been found for non-JFM households during this period. Categorically, forest income plays the dominant role in reducing measured income inequality for those households who are relatively asset poor and that also live below poverty line. The study also shows that the non-involvement in JFM programme by the non-JFM households might bring about a major environmental shirking, because illegal timber income constitutes the major part in total income for non-JFM households even after JFM scenario.
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- Nimai Das & Debnarayan Sarker, 2009.
"Impact of a moral hazard problem in the Joint Forest Management Programme: a study from forest-dependent households in West Bengal,"
Journal of Economic Policy Reform,
Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(4), pages 323-331.
- Nimai Das & Debnarayan Sarker, 2009. "Impact of a moral hazard problem in the Joint Forest Management Programme: a study from forest-dependent households in West Bengal," Journal of Economic Policy Reform, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 12(4), pages 323-331.
- Debnarayan Sarker & Nimai Das, 2008.
"A Study of Economic Outcome of Joint Forest Management Programme in West Bengal: The Strategic Decisions between Government and Forest Fringe Community,"
Indian Economic Review,
Department of Economics, Delhi School of Economics, vol. 43(1), pages 17-45, July.
- Sarker, Debnarayan & Das, Nimai, 2006. "A Study of Economic Outcome of Joint Forest Management Programme in West Bengal: The Strategic Decisions between Government and Forest Fringe Community," MPRA Paper 14875, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2007.
- Fisher, Monica, 2004. "Household welfare and forest dependence in Southern Malawi," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 9(02), pages 135-154, May.
- Babulo, Bedru & Muys, Bart & Nega, Fredu & Tollens, Eric & Nyssen, Jan & Deckers, Jozef & Mathijs, Erik, 2009. "The economic contribution of forest resource use to rural livelihoods in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia," Forest Policy and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 123-131, March.
- Reddy, S. R. C. & Chakravarty, S. P., 1999. "Forest Dependence and Income Distribution in a Subsistence Economy: Evidence from India," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 27(7), pages 1141-1149, July.
- Will Cavendish, 1999. "Poverty, inequality and environmental resources: quantitative analysis of rural households," CSAE Working Paper Series 1999-09, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
- Pattanayak, Subhrendu K. & Sills, Erin O. & Kramer, Randall A., 2004. "Seeing the forest for the fuel," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 9(02), pages 155-179, May.
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