Breaking the law? Illegal livelihoods from a Protected Area in Uganda
Forests are important to local livelihoods and regulating access to forests will have consequences to those livelihoods and may promote illegal harvesting. This study analyses how local people make a living, focusing on the illegal collection of a forest's resources following its declaration as a Protected Area (PA). A household survey was conducted between October and December 2005, combining semi-structured individual household interviews and village level focus group discussions. Six sub-counties bordering the Rwenzori Mountain National Park in Uganda were chosen at random and two sample villages randomly selected from each. Through a participatory wealth ranking exercise, all the individual households in each sample village were assigned to one of three categories: rich, medium or poor. From this stratified list five individual households were randomly selected from each category for semi-structured interviews. Household livelihood outcomes were assessed and a fractional logit regression was used to estimate factors influencing dependency on forest income. Households with less access to assets exhibited greater dependence on forest resources. The average household was poor with a per adult equivalent unit income of 0.5 USD/day, with 18.6% of their income being derived from environmental resources. Based on income per adult equivalent unit, households were divided into poor and less poor. Both categories reported illegal collection of forest products. The poor households derived 32% of their environmental income and 12% of their total income from the park compared to the less poor at 18% and 4.5% respectively. The park resources reduced income inequality, as well as the incidence and depth of poverty by 2.8, 3.0, and 5.0 percentage points, respectively. Small reductions in the incidence of poverty suggest that forest resources may not be reliable as a pathway out of poverty, but the poverty depth measure shows that forest resources have a significant impact on helping to make the poor less poor. Under such circumstances, our observation is that increased law enforcement alone is unlikely to protect the park. Interventions that allow managed access to these resources in the short term, whilst creating operational opportunities outside the areas to cater for local peoples' rights and needs in the longer term may be more suitable.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Charlie Shackleton & Sheona Shackleton & Ben Cousins, 2001. "The role of land-based strategies in rural livelihoods: The contribution of arable production, animal husbandry and natural resource harvesting in communal areas in South Africa," Development Southern Africa, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(5), pages 581-604.
- Beck, Tony & Nesmith, Cathy, 2001. "Building on Poor People's Capacities: The Case of Common Property Resources in India and West Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 119-133, January.
- Foster, James & Greer, Joel & Thorbecke, Erik, 1984. "A Class of Decomposable Poverty Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(3), pages 761-766, May.
- Jagger, Pamela, 2008. "Forest incomes after Uganda's forest sector reform: Are the rural poor gaining?," CAPRi working papers 92, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Godoy, Ricardo & O'neill, Kathleen & Groff, Stephen & Kostishack, Peter & Cubas, Adoni & Demmer, Josephien & Mcsweeney, Kendra & Overman, Johannes & Wilkie, David & Brokaw, Nicholas & Martinez, Marque, 1997. "Household determinants of deforestation by amerindians in honduras," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 25(6), pages 977-987, June.
- Babulo, Bedru & Muys, Bart & Nega, Fredu & Tollens, Eric & Nyssen, Jan & Deckers, Jozef & Mathijs, Erik, 2009. "The economic contribution of forest resource use to rural livelihoods in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia," Forest Policy and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 123-131, March.
- Campbell, B. M. & Costanza, R. & van den Belt, M., 2000. "SPECIAL SECTION: LAND USE OPTIONS IN DRY TROPICAL WOODLAND ECOSYSTEMS IN ZIMBABWE:: Introduction, overview and synthesis," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 341-351, June.
- Swinton, Scott M. & Quiroz, Roberto, 2003.
"Is Poverty to Blame for Soil, Pasture and Forest Degradation in Peru's Altiplano?,"
Elsevier, vol. 31(11), pages 1903-1919, November.
- Swinton, Scott M. & Quiroz, Roberto, 2002. "Are Poor Farmers To Blame For Environmental Degradation? Results From The Peruvian Altiplano," Staff Papers 11627, Michigan State University, Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics.
- Foster, James E, 1998. "Absolute versus Relative Poverty," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(2), pages 335-341, May.
- Axel Ockenfels & Gary E. Bolton, 2000. "ERC: A Theory of Equity, Reciprocity, and Competition," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(1), pages 166-193, March.
- Adhikari, Bhim & Di Falco, Salvatore & Lovett, Jon C., 2004. "Household characteristics and forest dependency: evidence from common property forest management in Nepal," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(2), pages 245-257, February.
- Fisher, Monica, 2004. "Household welfare and forest dependence in Southern Malawi," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 9(02), pages 135-154, May.
- Joachim Wagner, 2003.
"Unobserved firm heterogeneity and the size-exports nexus: Evidence from German panel data,"
Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv),
Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 139(1), pages 161-172, March.
- Wagner, Joachim, 2002. "Unobserved firm heterogeneity and the size-exports nexus : evidence from German panel data," HWWA Discussion Papers 194, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWA).
- Shackleton, Charlie M. & Shackleton, Sheona E. & Buiten, Erik & Bird, Neil, 2007. "The importance of dry woodlands and forests in rural livelihoods and poverty alleviation in South Africa," Forest Policy and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(5), pages 558-577, January.
- Graham Pyatt & Chau-nan Chen & John Fei, 1980. "The Distribution of Income by Factor Components," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 95(3), pages 451-473.
- Reddy, S. R. C. & Chakravarty, S. P., 1999. "Forest Dependence and Income Distribution in a Subsistence Economy: Evidence from India," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 27(7), pages 1141-1149, July.
- Byron, Neil & Arnold, Michael, 1999. "What Futures for the People of the Tropical Forests?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 27(5), pages 789-805, May.
- Simon Appleton, 1998. "Changes in poverty in Uganda, 1992-1996," CSAE Working Paper Series 1998-15, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
- Shackleton, Charlie M. & Shackleton, Sheona E., 2006. "Household wealth status and natural resource use in the Kat River valley, South Africa," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(2), pages 306-317, May.
- Wunder, Sven, 2001. "Poverty Alleviation and Tropical Forests--What Scope for Synergies?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(11), pages 1817-1833, November.
- Papke, Leslie E & Wooldridge, Jeffrey M, 1996. "Econometric Methods for Fractional Response Variables with an Application to 401(K) Plan Participation Rates," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(6), pages 619-632, Nov.-Dec..
- Leslie E. Papke & Jeffrey M. Wooldridge, 1993. "Econometric Methods for Fractional Response Variables with an Application to 401(k) Plan Participation Rates," NBER Technical Working Papers 0147, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jodha, N.S., 1992. "Common Property Resources; A Missing Dimension of development Strategies," World Bank - Discussion Papers 168, World Bank.
- Escobal, Javier & Aldana, Ursula, 2003. "Are Nontimber Forest Products the Antidote to Rainforest Degradation? Brazil Nut Extraction in Madre De Dios, Peru," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 31(11), pages 1873-1887, November.
- Vedeld, Paul & Angelsen, Arild & Bojo, Jan & Sjaastad, Espen & Kobugabe Berg, Gertrude, 2007. "Forest environmental incomes and the rural poor," Forest Policy and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(7), pages 869-879, April.
- Cavendish, William, 2000. "Empirical Regularities in the Poverty-Environment Relationship of Rural Households: Evidence from Zimbabwe," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 28(11), pages 1979-2003, November.
- Atkinson, Anthony B., 1970. "On the measurement of inequality," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 244-263, September.
- Sunderlin, William D. & Angelsen, Arild & Belcher, Brian & Burgers, Paul & Nasi, Robert & Santoso, Levania & Wunder, Sven, 2005. "Livelihoods, forests, and conservation in developing countries: An Overview," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 33(9), pages 1383-1402, September.
- Shackleton, Sheona & Campbell, Bruce & Lotz-Sisitka, Heila & Shackleton, Charlie, 2008. "Links between the Local Trade in Natural Products, Livelihoods and Poverty Alleviation in a Semi-arid Region of South Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 505-526, March.
- Mamo, Getachew & Sjaastad, Espen & Vedeld, Pal, 2007. "Economic dependence on forest resources: A case from Dendi District, Ethiopia," Forest Policy and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(8), pages 916-927, May. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)