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Reglas fiscales para exportadores de materias primas: una aplicación para Perú


  • Gustavo Ganiko


  • Carlos Montoro


Presentamos un modelo semiestructural, el cual captura la dinámica de las principales variables macrofiscales en economías exportadoras de bienes básicos (commodities), para analizar los efectos macroeconómicos de cuatro reglas fiscales: (i) un límite al déficit observado, (ii) un límite al déficit estructural, (iii) un límite al crecimiento del gasto público, y (iv) una regla que incluye conjuntamente las reglas (i) y (iii). Este modelo es estimado para la economía peruana utilizando información del período 2000-2015. Se encuentra que el diseño óptimo de un marco fiscal se puede resumir en un trilema entre sostenibilidad fiscal, estabilidad macroeconómica y transparencia. La regla estructural, si bien depende de la estimación de variables no observables que dificultan su monitoreo, reduce las fluctuaciones de la actividad económica y del gasto público, pero aumenta la volatilidad del ratio de deuda pública. En contraste, la regla basada en límites al déficit observado es más fácil de monitorear y genera una senda más estable de la deuda pública, pero aumenta la volatilidad del PBI (Producto Bruto Interno) y del gasto público. Finalmente, la aplicación conjunta de un límite al déficit fiscal observado y un tope al crecimiento del gasto público es un caso intermedio entre las dos reglas en términos de volatilidad macroeconómica. ****** We present a tailor-made semi-structural model, which captures the main macro-fiscal variables in commodity exporting economies, to analyze the macroeconomic effects of 4 fiscal rules: (i) a limit to the observed fiscal deficit; (ii) a limit to the structural deficit; (iii) a limit to the growth rate of government expenditures; and (iv) a rule that includes jointly rules (i) and (iii). We estimate the model for the Peruvian economy for the 2000-2015 period. We find that the optimal design of a macrofiscal framework con be summarized as a trilemma between fiscal sustainability, macroeconomic stability and transparency. The structural rule, although it depends on the estimation of unobservable variables which could make monitoring difficult, diminishes the volatility of GDP and public expenditures, but increases the volatility of the public debt ratio to GDP. In contrast, the rule base on the observed fiscal deficit is easier to monitor and generates a more stable path of public debt, but increased the volatility of GDP and public expenditures. Finally, the joint rule of a fiscal deficit limit and an expenditure growth limit is an intermediate case between them in terms of macroeconomic volatility.

Suggested Citation

  • Gustavo Ganiko & Carlos Montoro, 2018. "Reglas fiscales para exportadores de materias primas: una aplicación para Perú," Revista ESPE - Ensayos sobre Política Económica, Banco de la Republica de Colombia, vol. 36(85), pages 65-85, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:bdr:ensayo:v:36:y:2018:i:85:p:65-85

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Nina T Budina & Tidiane Kinda & Andrea Schaechter & Anke Weber, 2012. "Fiscal Rules at a Glance; Country Details from a New Dataset," IMF Working Papers 12/273, International Monetary Fund.
    2. Guerrieri, Luca & Iacoviello, Matteo, 2015. "OccBin: A toolkit for solving dynamic models with occasionally binding constraints easily," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 22-38.
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    More about this item


    Reglas fiscales; Política fiscal; Déficit estructural; Commodities; Fiscal rules; Fiscal policy; Structural fiscal balance; Commodities;

    JEL classification:

    • E62 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Fiscal Policy
    • H62 - Public Economics - - National Budget, Deficit, and Debt - - - Deficit; Surplus


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