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?One Muslim is Enough!? Evidence from a Field Experiment in France


  • Claire L. Adida
  • David D. Laitin
  • Marie-Anne Valfort


Anti-Muslim prejudice is widespread in Western countries. Yet, Muslims are expected to constitute a growing share of the total population in these countries over the next decades. This paper suggests that this demographic trend, other factors held constant, will increase anti-Muslim prejudice. Relying on experimental games and a formal model, we find that French players with no recent immigrant background discriminate against Muslims when the proportion of Muslims in their midst increases. Further analysis provides tentative evidence that this discrimination is taste-based.

Suggested Citation

  • Claire L. Adida & David D. Laitin & Marie-Anne Valfort, 2016. "?One Muslim is Enough!? Evidence from a Field Experiment in France," Annals of Economics and Statistics, GENES, issue 121-122, pages 121-160.
  • Handle: RePEc:adr:anecst:y:2016:i:121-122:p:121-160 DOI: 10.15609/annaeconstat2009.121-122.121

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Claire L. Adida & David D. Laitin & Marie-Anne Valfort, 2010. "Identifying barriers to Muslim integration in France," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) halshs-00618060, HAL.
    2. Alberto Dávila & Marie Mora, 2005. "Changes in the earnings of Arab men in the US between 2000 and 2002," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 18(4), pages 587-601, November.
    3. Neeraj Kaushal & Robert Kaestner & Cordelia Reimers, 2007. "Labor Market Effects of September 11th on Arab and Muslim Residents of the United States," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 42(2).
    4. repec:cup:apsrev:v:104:y:2010:i:01:p:40-60_99 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Forsythe Robert & Horowitz Joel L. & Savin N. E. & Sefton Martin, 1994. "Fairness in Simple Bargaining Experiments," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 347-369, May.
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    Cited by:

    1. Pierre-Philippe Combes & Bruno Decreuse & Morgane Laouénan & Alain Trannoy, 2016. "Customer Discrimination and Employment Outcomes: Theory and Evidence from the French Labor Market," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 34(1), pages 107-160.
    2. Philip Verwimp, 2015. "Foreign Fighters in Syria and Iraq and the Socio-Economic Environment They Faced at Home: a Comparison of European Countries," Working Papers ECARES ECARES 2015-50, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    3. Vera Mironova & Egor Lazarev, 2013. "Minority Status and Investment: Evidence from Natural and Lab Experiments in Bosnia and Herzegovina1," HiCN Working Papers 162, Households in Conflict Network.
    4. Claire Adida & David Laitin & Marie-Anne Valfort, 2014. "Muslims in France: identifying a discriminatory equilibrium," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 27(4), pages 1039-1086, October.
    5. Teresa Garcia-Muñoz & Shoshana Neuman, 2013. "Bridges or buffers? Motives behind Immigrants’ Religiosity," IZA Journal of Migration, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 2(1), pages 1-23, December.
    6. Teresa García-Mu-oz & Shoshana Neuman, 2013. "Immigration–religiosity intersections at the two sides of the Atlantic: Europe and the United States," Chapters,in: International Handbook on the Economics of Migration, chapter 18, pages 331-352 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    7. Dorian Jullien & Judith Favereau & Cléo Chassonnery-Zaigouche, 2013. "Rationality and Efficiency: From Experimentation in (recent) Applied Microeconomics to Conceptual Issues," GREDEG Working Papers 2013-21, Groupe de REcherche en Droit, Economie, Gestion (GREDEG CNRS), University of Nice Sophia Antipolis.
    8. Eric D. Gould & Esteban F. Klor, 2016. "The Long‐run Effect of 9/11: Terrorism, Backlash, and the Assimilation of Muslim Immigrants in the West," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 126(597), pages 2064-2114, November.
    9. Andreea Mitrut & François-Charles Wolff, 2014. "Investing in children’s education: are Muslim immigrants different?," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 27(4), pages 999-1022, October.
    10. Adida, Claire L. & Laitin, David D. & Valfort, Marie-Anne, 2012. "Gender, Economic Development and Islam: A Perspective from France," IZA Discussion Papers 6421, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    11. García-Muñoz, Teresa & Neuman, Shoshana, 2012. "Is Religiosity of Immigrants a Bridge or a Buffer in the Process of Integration? A Comparative Study of Europe and the United States," IZA Discussion Papers 6384, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

    More about this item


    Discrimination; Islam; France; Group Salience; Group Threat Theory; Intergroup Contact Theory.;

    JEL classification:

    • A12 - General Economics and Teaching - - General Economics - - - Relation of Economics to Other Disciplines
    • C90 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Design of Experiments - - - General
    • D03 - Microeconomics - - General - - - Behavioral Microeconomics: Underlying Principles
    • J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J71 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Hiring and Firing
    • Z12 - Other Special Topics - - Cultural Economics - - - Religion


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