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Gender and the Automobile – An Analysis of Non-work Service Trips

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  • Vance, Colin
  • Iovanna, Rich

Abstract

Focusing on individual motorists in car-owning households in Germany, this analysis econometrically investigates the determinants of automobile travel for non-work service activities against the backdrop of two questions: 1) Does gender play a role in determining the probability of car use and the distance driven? 2) If so, how is this role mitigated or exacerbated by other socioeconomic attributes of the individual and the household in which they reside? Drawing on a panel of data collected between 1996 and 2003, we specify Heckman's sample selection model to control for biases that could otherwise arise from the existence of unobservable variables that determine both the discrete and continuous choices pertaining to car use.The results indicate that although women,on average, undertake more non-work travel than men, they undertake less of such travel by car, implying a greater reliance on other modes. Moreover, employment status, age, the number of children, automobile availability, and the proximity to public transit are all found to have significantly different effects on the probability of non-work car travel between men and women, but - with the exception of automobile availability - not on the distance driven.Taken together, these results suggest that policies targeted at reducing automobile dependency and associated negative externalities such as congestion are unlikely to have uniform effects across the sexes, findings having implications for both policy evaluation as well as travel demand forecasting.

Suggested Citation

  • Vance, Colin & Iovanna, Rich, 2007. "Gender and the Automobile – An Analysis of Non-work Service Trips," Ruhr Economic Papers 11, RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-University Bochum, TU Dortmund University, University of Duisburg-Essen.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:rwirep:11
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
    2. Ai, Chunrong & Norton, Edward C., 2003. "Interaction terms in logit and probit models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 80(1), pages 123-129, July.
    3. Rodolfo Hoffmann & Ana Lucia Kassouf, 2005. "Deriving conditional and unconditional marginal effects in log earnings equations estimated by Heckman's procedure," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(11), pages 1303-1311.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Mercado, Ruben & Páez, Antonio, 2009. "Determinants of distance traveled with a focus on the elderly: a multilevel analysis in the Hamilton CMA, Canada," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 65-76.
    2. Wynen, Jan, 2013. "Explaining travel distance during same-day visits," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 133-140.
    3. Keller, Rose & Vance, Colin, 2013. "Landscape pattern and car use: Linking household data with satellite imagery," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 250-257.
    4. Morency, Catherine & Paez, Antonio & Roorda, Matthew J. & Mercado, Ruben & Farber, Steven, 2011. "Distance traveled in three Canadian cities: Spatial analysis from the perspective of vulnerable population segments," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 39-50.
    5. Fritzsche, Bernd & Haisken-DeNew, John & Kambeck, Rainer & Siemers, Lars-H. R. & Bergs, Christian & Fuest, Clemens & Peichl, Andreas & Schaefer, Thilo & Thöne, Michael, 2007. "Der Zusammenhang zwischen Steuerlast- und Einkommensverteilung: Forschungsprojekt für das Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales. Endbericht - Dezember 2007," RWI Projektberichte, RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, number 70874.
    6. Matsuo, Miwa, 2016. "Gender differences in mobility of Hispanic immigrants," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 209-230.
    7. Frondel, Manuel & Vance, Colin, 2017. "Cycling on the extensive and intensive margin: The role of paths and prices," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 21-31.
    8. Deka, Devajyoti, 2013. "An explanation of the relationship between adults’ work trip mode and children’s school trip mode through the Heckman approach," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 54-63.
    9. Scheiner, Joachim & Holz-Rau, Christian, 2012. "Gendered travel mode choice: a focus on car deficient households," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 250-261.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Automobile travel; gender; Heckman model; Monte Carlo simulation;

    JEL classification:

    • R21 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Housing Demand
    • R41 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Transportation Economics - - - Transportation: Demand, Supply, and Congestion; Travel Time; Safety and Accidents; Transportation Noise

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