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Beschäftigungswirkungen von Lohnsubventionen und Mindestlöhnen - Zur Reform des Niedriglohnsektors in Deutschland

  • Müller, Kai-Uwe
  • Steiner, Viktor
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    In diesem Beitrag werden die Beschäftigungswirkungen von Lohnsubventionen und eines Mindestlohnes für Deutschland analysiert. Studien zum Mindestlohn im Baugewerbe und Simulationen zu einem allgemeinen Mindestlohn weisen einhellig auf Beschäftigungsverluste durch einen gesetzlichen Mindestlohn für die Bundesrepublik hin. Die Größenordnung hängt vom Mindestlohnniveau, Gütermarktreaktionen und der Reichweite des Mindestlohnes (Einschluss Auszubildender, geringfügig Beschäftigter) ab. Bei einem Mindestlohn von 7,5 € pro Stunde und elastischer Güternachfrage schätzen wir einen Gesamtverlust von ca. 220.000, insbesondere geringfügig Beschäftigten. Evaluationen bestehender Lohnsubventionen finden nur geringe Arbeitsanreizeffekte. Im Beitrag wird alternativ der aufkommensneutral gestaltete 'Beschäftigungsbonus' der geringe Stundenlöhne und nicht niedrige Erwerbseinkommen subventioniert, betrachtet. Dieser würde ein zusätzliches Arbeitsangebot von ca. 80.000 Personen bzw. ein zusätzliches Stundenangebot von etwa 420.000 Vollzeitäquivalenten induzieren. In Kombination mit einem allgemeinen Mindestlohn wären arbeitnehmerseitige Lohnsubventionen ineffektiv. Die Simulationsergebnisse zeigen, dass in diesem Fall arbeitgeberseitige Lohnsubventionen die infolge des Mindestlohnes gestiegenen Arbeitskosten kompensieren und Beschäftigungsverluste im Niedriglohnbereich teilweise verringern können.

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    Paper provided by Free University Berlin, School of Business & Economics in its series Discussion Papers with number 2011/4.

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    Date of creation: 2011
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:fubsbe:20114
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