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Beschäftigungswirkungen von Lohnsubventionen und Mindestlöhnen - Zur Reform des Niedriglohnsektors in Deutschland

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  • Müller, Kai-Uwe
  • Steiner, Viktor

Abstract

In diesem Beitrag werden die Beschäftigungswirkungen von Lohnsubventionen und eines Mindestlohnes für Deutschland analysiert. Studien zum Mindestlohn im Baugewerbe und Simulationen zu einem allgemeinen Mindestlohn weisen einhellig auf Beschäftigungsverluste durch einen gesetzlichen Mindestlohn für die Bundesrepublik hin. Die Größenordnung hängt vom Mindestlohnniveau, Gütermarktreaktionen und der Reichweite des Mindestlohnes (Einschluss Auszubildender, geringfügig Beschäftigter) ab. Bei einem Mindestlohn von 7,5 € pro Stunde und elastischer Güternachfrage schätzen wir einen Gesamtverlust von ca. 220.000, insbesondere geringfügig Beschäftigten. Evaluationen bestehender Lohnsubventionen finden nur geringe Arbeitsanreizeffekte. Im Beitrag wird alternativ der aufkommensneutral gestaltete 'Beschäftigungsbonus' der geringe Stundenlöhne und nicht niedrige Erwerbseinkommen subventioniert, betrachtet. Dieser würde ein zusätzliches Arbeitsangebot von ca. 80.000 Personen bzw. ein zusätzliches Stundenangebot von etwa 420.000 Vollzeitäquivalenten induzieren. In Kombination mit einem allgemeinen Mindestlohn wären arbeitnehmerseitige Lohnsubventionen ineffektiv. Die Simulationsergebnisse zeigen, dass in diesem Fall arbeitgeberseitige Lohnsubventionen die infolge des Mindestlohnes gestiegenen Arbeitskosten kompensieren und Beschäftigungsverluste im Niedriglohnbereich teilweise verringern können.

Suggested Citation

  • Müller, Kai-Uwe & Steiner, Viktor, 2011. "Beschäftigungswirkungen von Lohnsubventionen und Mindestlöhnen - Zur Reform des Niedriglohnsektors in Deutschland," Discussion Papers 2011/4, Free University Berlin, School of Business & Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:fubsbe:20114
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    Cited by:

    1. Schmitz, Sebastian, 2017. "The effects of Germany's new minimum wage on employment and welfare dependency," Discussion Papers 2017/21, Free University Berlin, School of Business & Economics.
    2. Caliendo Marco & Wittbrodt Linda & Schröder Carsten, 2019. "The Causal Effects of the Minimum Wage Introduction in Germany – An Overview," German Economic Review, De Gruyter, vol. 20(3), pages 257-292, August.
    3. Dütsch Matthias & Himmelreicher Ralf & Pfeifer Christian & Wunsch Conny, 2020. "Editorial: Effects of the Introduction of the Statutory Minimum Wage in Germany," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), De Gruyter, vol. 240(2-3), pages 155-160, April.
    4. Caliendo, Marco & Fedorets, Alexandra & Preuss, Malte & Schröder, Carsten & Wittbrodt, Linda, 2018. "The short-run employment effects of the German minimum wage reform," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 46-62.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Niedriglohnsektor; Lohnsubvention; Mindestlohn;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • H24 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Personal Income and Other Nonbusiness Taxes and Subsidies
    • H31 - Public Economics - - Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents - - - Household
    • I38 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Government Programs; Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs
    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
    • J23 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Demand

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