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Long-Run Links Among Money, Prices, and Output: World-Wide Evidence

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  • Reimers, Hans-Eggert
  • Herwartz, Helmut

Abstract

Regarding inflation as being a monetary phenomenon in the long-run is a widely-held view in modern macro economics. We analyse this topic by means of a P-star model. Based on the quantity theory of money, this approach explains inflation via a supposed equilibrium price level (P-star), which itself depends on potential output and money. We investigate country-specific models for 110 economies, and also a pooled system thereof. We test for cointegration among money, prices, and real output. Moreover, parameter restrictions for the long-run relationships implied by the monetary theory are tested. Country specific P-star variables are constructed and the cointegration property between prices and the P-star variable is analysed. Along these lines, we find that actual prices and their P-star counterparts are cointegrated at the pooled level and thus demonstrate the importance of money for the development of prices.

Suggested Citation

  • Reimers, Hans-Eggert & Herwartz, Helmut, 2001. "Long-Run Links Among Money, Prices, and Output: World-Wide Evidence," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2001,14, Deutsche Bundesbank.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:bubdp1:4159
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Orphanides, Athanasios & Porter, Richard D., 2000. "P revisited: money-based inflation forecasts with a changing equilibrium velocity," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 52(1-2), pages 87-100.
    2. G. Coenen & J.-L. Vega, 2001. "The demand for M3 in the euro area," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(6), pages 727-748.
    3. Lucas, Robert E, Jr, 1996. "Nobel Lecture: Monetary Neutrality," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 104(4), pages 661-682, August.
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    5. Gerlach, Stefan & Svensson, Lars E. O., 2003. "Money and inflation in the euro area: A case for monetary indicators?," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(8), pages 1649-1672, November.
    6. James B. Bullard, 1999. "Testing long-run monetary neutrality propositions: lessons from the recent research," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, vol. 81(Nov), pages 57-77.
    7. Herwartz, Helmut & Neumann, Michael H., 2000. "Bootstrap inference in single equation error correction models," SFB 373 Discussion Papers 2000,87, Humboldt University of Berlin, Interdisciplinary Research Project 373: Quantification and Simulation of Economic Processes.
    8. Claus Brand & Nuno Cassola, 2004. "A money demand system for euro area M3," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(8), pages 817-838.
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    Cited by:

    1. Tödter, Karl-Heinz, 2002. "Monetary indicators and policy rules in the P-star model," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2002,18, Deutsche Bundesbank.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Quantity theory of money; Panel cointegration analysis; Wild bootstrap inference;

    JEL classification:

    • E31 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Price Level; Inflation; Deflation
    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes

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