This paper studies the strategic role of extremism within a two-country multi-stage game and shows that, in general, an equilibrium exists in which extremism is used by both rivals. We show that often changes in the environment affect the two countries differently. Specifically, as a country becomes wealthier, more powerful, or more democratic, its level of extremism decreases, but at the same time, its rival’s level of extremism increases. Similarly, higher stakes in the conflict tend to increase the level of extremism in the relatively poorer, weaker, and less democratic country, but decrease the level of extremism in the other country. On the other hand, higher stakes in a conflict between similar countries and greater destructiveness vis-à-vis the contested asset will increase the levels of extremism in both countries. Since changes in the environment may affect the levels of extremism in the two countries in opposite ways, we calculate the probability of an extremist destructive episode as a possible measure of the “aggregate” level of extremism in the conflict. We find that the aggregate level of extremism decreases with wealth, power, and degree of democracy, but increases with the stakes in the conflict and with better access to destructive technology. Finally, we use the model to examine levels of extremism within the context of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.
|Date of creation:||Aug 2006|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, Ontario, M3J 1P3|
Phone: (416) 736-5083
Fax: (416) 736-5987
Web page: http://dept.econ.yorku.ca/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Westermark, Andreas, 2004.
"Extremism, campaigning and ambiguity,"
Games and Economic Behavior,
Elsevier, vol. 47(2), pages 421-452, May.
- Svejnar, Jan, 1986.
"Bargaining Power, Fear of Disagreement, and Wage Settlements: Theory and Evidence from U.S. Industry,"
Econometric Society, vol. 54(5), pages 1055-78, September.
- Svejnar, J., 1984. "Bargaining power, fear of disagreement and wage settlements: theory and evidence from U.S. industry," CORE Discussion Papers 1984037, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- SVEJNAR, Jan, . "Bargaining power, fear of disagreement, and wage settlements: theory and evidence from U.S. industry," CORE Discussion Papers RP 720, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Elie Appelbaum & Eliakim Katz, 2005.
"Political extremism in the presence of a free rider problem,"
2005_3, York University, Department of Economics.
- Elie Appelbaum & Eliakim Katz, 2007. "Political extremism in the presence of a free rider problem," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 133(1), pages 31-40, October.
- Blomberg, S. Brock & Hess, Gregory D. & Weerapana, Akila, 2004. "Economic conditions and terrorism," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 463-478, June.
- Glazer, A., 1999.
"Allies as Rivals: Internal and External Rent Seeking,"
99-00-10, California Irvine - School of Social Sciences.
- Glazer, Amihai, 2002. "Allies as rivals: internal and external rent seeking," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 48(2), pages 155-162, June.
- Muhammad Islam & Wassim Shahin, 2001. "Applying economic methodology to the war on terrorism," Forum for Social Economics, Springer;The Association for Social Economics, vol. 31(1), pages 7-26, September.
- Sandler, Todd & Enders, Walter, 2004. "An economic perspective on transnational terrorism," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 301-316, June.
- Dirk Rubbelke, 2005. "Differing motivations for terrorism," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(1), pages 19-27.
- Atkinson, Scott E & Sandler, Todd & Tschirhart, John, 1987. "Terrorism in a Bargaining Framework," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 30(1), pages 1-21, April.
- Wintrobe,Ronald, 2006.
Cambridge University Press, number 9780521859646, November.
- Glazer, A. & Konrad, K.A., 1995.
"The Electoral Politics of Extreme Policies,"
94-95-23, California Irvine - School of Social Sciences.
- Bruno S. Frey & Simon Luechinger, . "How to Fight Terrorism: Alternatives to Deterrence," IEW - Working Papers 137, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics - University of Zurich.
- Lapan, Harvey E. & Sandler, Todd, 1993.
"Terrorism and Signalling,"
Staff General Research Papers Archive
10808, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- Edward L. Glaeser & Giacomo A. M. Ponzetto & Jesse M. Shapiro, 2004.
"Strategic Extremism: Why Republicans and Democrats Divide on Religious Values,"
NBER Working Papers
10835, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Edward L. Glaeser & Giacomo A. M. Ponzetto & Jesse M. Shapiro, 2005. "Strategic Extremism: Why Republicans and Democrats Divide on Religious Values," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 120(4), pages 1283-1330.
- Edward L. Glaeser & Giacomo A. M. Ponzetto & Jesse M. Shapiro, 2004. "Strategic Extremism: Why Republicans and Democrats Divide on Religious Values," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 2044, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Mario Ferrero, 2005.
"Radicalization as a reaction to failure: An economic model of Islamic extremism,"
Springer, vol. 122(1), pages 199-220, January.
- Ferrero, Mario, 2002. "Radicalization as a reaction to failure: an economic model of islamic extremism," POLIS Working Papers 31, Institute of Public Policy and Public Choice - POLIS.
- S. Brock Blomberg & Gregory D. Hess & Akila Weerapana, 2004. "An Economic Model of Terrorism," Conflict Management and Peace Science, Peace Science Society (International), vol. 21(1), pages 17-28, February.
- Asoka Bandarage, 2004. "Beyond Globalization and Ethno-religious Fundamentalism," Development, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 47(1), pages 35-41, March.
- Laussel, Didier, 2002. "Delegation effects in representative democracies: do they foster extremism?," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(2), pages 191-205, August.
- Esteban, Joan & Ray, Debraj, 1999. "Conflict and Distribution," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 87(2), pages 379-415, August.
- Ronald Wintrobe, 2006. "Extremism, suicide terror, and authoritarianism," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 128(1), pages 169-195, July.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:yca:wpaper:2006_12. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Support)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.