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The Dynamics of Hate and Violence

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  • Elie Appelbaum

    () (York University, Toronto)

Abstract

This paper provides a simple dynamic model that explores the interdependence and dynamic properties of hate, violence and economic well-being. It shows that a time-dependent economic growth process that affects the evolution of hate can yield a long run steady state, but this steady state will not be free of hate and violence. Moreover, we show that better (long run) economic conditions do not necessarily result in lower equilibrium levels of hate and violence. We show that, under reasonable conditions, cycles of hate and violence cannot occur and consequently, the dynamics of hate and violence in itself cannot give rise to cyclical patterns of (net) economic well-being. While both stable and unstable equilibria are possible, the most likely equilibrium is unstable (a saddle point). Using a linear example, we show that instability becomes more likely with an increases in the: responsiveness to economic condition and violence; willingness to forgive; marginal cost of violence and “length†of a country’s m

Suggested Citation

  • Elie Appelbaum, 2013. "The Dynamics of Hate and Violence," Working Papers 2013_01, York University, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:yca:wpaper:2013_01
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    File URL: http://dept.econ.yorku.ca/research/workingPapers/working_papers/dhv.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Atkinson, Scott E & Sandler, Todd & Tschirhart, John, 1987. "Terrorism in a Bargaining Framework," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 30(1), pages 1-21, April.
    2. Wayne Nafziger, E. & Auvinen, Juha, 2002. "Economic Development, Inequality, War, and State Violence," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 153-163, February.
    3. Blomberg, S. Brock & Hess, Gregory D. & Weerapana, Akila, 2004. "Economic conditions and terrorism," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 463-478, June.
    4. Elie Appelbaum & Eliakim Katz, 2007. "Political extremism in the presence of a free rider problem," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 133(1), pages 31-40, October.
    5. Edward L. Glaeser, 2005. "The Political Economy of Hatred," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 120(1), pages 45-86.
    6. Sandler, Todd & Enders, Walter, 2004. "An economic perspective on transnational terrorism," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 301-316, June.
    7. Appelbaum, Elie, 2008. "Extremism as a strategic tool in conflicts," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 68(2), pages 352-364, November.
    8. Collier, Paul & Hoeffler, Anke, 1998. "On Economic Causes of Civil War," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 50(4), pages 563-573, October.
    9. Esteban, Joan & Ray, Debraj, 1999. "Conflict and Distribution," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 87(2), pages 379-415, August.
    10. S. Brock Blomberg & Gregory D. Hess, 2002. "The Temporal Links between Conflict and Economic Activity," Journal of Conflict Resolution, Peace Science Society (International), vol. 46(1), pages 74-90, February.
    11. Asoka Bandarage, 2004. "Beyond Globalization and Ethno-religious Fundamentalism," Development, Palgrave Macmillan;Society for International Deveopment, vol. 47(1), pages 35-41, March.
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