IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/wvu/wpaper/15-40.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Institutional Convergence: Exit or Voice?

Author

Listed:
  • Joshua C. Hall

    (West Virginia University, Department of Economics)

Abstract

There is a small but growing literature on the determinants of economic freedom. In this paper I contribute to this literature in two ways. First, I empirically show that Beta-convergence in economic freedom occurred from 1980 to 2010. Countries with low levels of economic freedom in 1980 "catch up" at a rate of 0.7 percent a year on average, ceteris paribus. Second, I document the structural characteristics that contribute to this institutional convergence. My conditional convergence estimates suggest democratic institutions do not contribute to conditional convergence. Exitability, a variable that captures how easy it is for citizens to "vote with their feet" is related to the change in economic freedom from 1980 to 2010 in a statistically significant manner across all specifications. This provides some to the importance of "exit" versus "voice" with respect to the question of institutional change.

Suggested Citation

  • Joshua C. Hall, 2015. "Institutional Convergence: Exit or Voice?," Working Papers 15-40, Department of Economics, West Virginia University.
  • Handle: RePEc:wvu:wpaper:15-40
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://busecon.wvu.edu/phd_economics/pdf/15-40.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Andrei Shleifer & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Rafael La Porta, 2008. "The Economic Consequences of Legal Origins," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 46(2), pages 285-332, June.
    2. J. Clark & Robert Lawson & Alex Nowrasteh & Benjamin Powell & Ryan Murphy, 2015. "Does immigration impact institutions?," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 163(3), pages 321-335, June.
    3. Jakob De Haan & Susanna Lundström & Jan‐Egbert Sturm, 2006. "Market‐oriented institutions and policies and economic growth: A critical survey," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(2), pages 157-191, April.
    4. Sala-i-Martin, Xavier X, 1996. "The Classical Approach to Convergence Analysis," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(437), pages 1019-1036, July.
    5. Lawson, Robert A. & Clark, J.R., 2010. "Examining the Hayek-Friedman hypothesis on economic and political freedom," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 74(3), pages 230-239, June.
    6. La Porta, Rafael & Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert, 1999. "The Quality of Government," Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 15(1), pages 222-279, April.
    7. Young, Andrew T. & Sheehan, Kathleen M., 2014. "Foreign aid, institutional quality, and growth," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 195-208.
    8. James D. Gwartney & Randall G. Holcombe & Robert A. Lawson, 2006. "Institutions and the Impact of Investment on Growth," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 59(2), pages 255-273, May.
    9. Antonio Savoia & Kunal Sen, 2016. "Do We See Convergence in Institutions? A Cross-Country Analysis," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 52(2), pages 166-185, February.
    10. Joshua C. Hall & Robert A. Lawson, 2014. "Economic Freedom Of The World: An Accounting Of The Literature," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 32(1), pages 1-19, January.
    11. James D. Gwartney & Robert A. Lawson & Randall G. Holcombe, 1999. "Economic Freedom and the Environment for Economic Growth," Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics (JITE), Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, vol. 155(4), pages 643-643, December.
    12. Russell S. Sobel & Christopher J. Coyne, 2011. "Cointegrating Institutions: The Time-Series Properties of Country Institutional Measures," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 54(1), pages 111-134.
    13. Andrew T. Young & Matthew J. Higgins & Daniel Levy, 2008. "Sigma Convergence versus Beta Convergence: Evidence from U.S. County‐Level Data," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 40(5), pages 1083-1093, August.
    14. Nathan J. Ashby, 2007. "Economic Freedom and Migration Flows between U.S. States," Southern Economic Journal, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 73(3), pages 677-697, January.
    15. Peter T. Leeson & Andrea M. Dean, 2009. "The Democratic Domino Theory: An Empirical Investigation," American Journal of Political Science, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 53(3), pages 533-551, July.
    16. World Bank, 2015. "World Development Indicators 2015," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 21634, July.
    17. Knack, Steve, 1996. "Institutions and the Convergence Hypothesis: The Cross-National Evidence," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 87(3-4), pages 207-228, June.
    18. Edward Stringham & Caleb Miles, 2012. "Repelling states: Evidence from upland Southeast Asia," The Review of Austrian Economics, Springer;Society for the Development of Austrian Economics, vol. 25(1), pages 17-33, March.
    19. Leeson, Peter T. & Sobel, Russell S. & Dean, Andrea M., 2012. "Comparing the spread of capitalism and democracy," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 114(1), pages 139-141.
    20. Barro, Robert J. & Lee, Jong Wha, 2013. "A new data set of educational attainment in the world, 1950–2010," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 184-198.
    21. Charles M. Tiebout, 1956. "A Pure Theory of Local Expenditures," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 64, pages 416-416.
    22. Pitlik, Hans & Wirth, Steffen, 2003. "Do crises promote the extent of economic liberalization?: an empirical test," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 565-581, September.
    23. Martin Rode & Sebastian Coll, 2012. "Economic freedom and growth. Which policies matter the most?," Constitutional Political Economy, Springer, vol. 23(2), pages 95-133, June.
    24. Eric Crampton, 2002. "You Get What You Vote For : Voter Preferences and Economic Freedom," Journal of Private Enterprise, The Association of Private Enterprise Education, vol. 18(Fall 2002), pages 29-56.
    25. Benjamin Powell & Malavika Nair, 2012. "On the governance of “not being governed”," The Review of Austrian Economics, Springer;Society for the Development of Austrian Economics, vol. 25(1), pages 9-16, March.
    26. Manuel Vega-Gordillo & José L. à lvarez-Arce, 2003. "Economic Growth and Freedom: A Causality Study," Cato Journal, Cato Journal, Cato Institute, vol. 23(2), pages 199-215, Fall.
    27. de Haan, Jakob & Sturm, Jan-Egbert, 2003. "Does more democracy lead to greater economic freedom? New evidence for developing countries," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 547-563, September.
    28. Martin Rode & Julio Revuelta, 2015. "The Wild Bunch! An empirical note on populism and economic institutions," Economics of Governance, Springer, vol. 16(1), pages 73-96, February.
    29. Claudia Williamson & Rachel Mathers, 2011. "Economic freedom, culture, and growth," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 148(3), pages 313-335, September.
    30. Scott Beaulier & J. Subrick, 2006. "The Political Foundations of Development: The Case of Botswana," Constitutional Political Economy, Springer, vol. 17(2), pages 103-115, June.
    31. N. Gregory Mankiw & David Romer & David N. Weil, 1992. "A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(2), pages 407-437.
    32. repec:hrv:faseco:30747160 is not listed on IDEAS
    33. William Easterly & Jozef Ritzen & Michael Woolcock, 2006. "Social Cohesion, Institutions, And Growth," Economics and Politics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 18(2), pages 103-120, July.
    34. Nicholas Apergis & Oguzhan Dincer & James E. Payne, 2014. "Economic Freedom And Income Inequality Revisited: Evidence From A Panel Error Correction Model," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 32(1), pages 67-75, January.
    35. Edward L. Glaeser & Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer, 2004. "Do Institutions Cause Growth?," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 9(3), pages 271-303, September.
    36. Dawson, John W., 2003. "Causality in the freedom-growth relationship," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 479-495, September.
    37. Stephen Knack & Philip Keefer, 1995. "Institutions And Economic Performance: Cross‐Country Tests Using Alternative Institutional Measures," Economics and Politics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 7(3), pages 207-227, November.
    38. Gwartney, James & Lawson, Robert, 2003. "The concept and measurement of economic freedom," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 405-430, September.
    39. Lundstrom, Susanna, 2005. "The effect of democracy on different categories of economic freedom," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 967-980, December.
    40. Knack, Stephen & Keefer, Philip, 1995. "Institutions and Economic Performance: Cross-Country Tests Using Alternative Institutional Indicators," MPRA Paper 23118, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    41. Carden, Art & Lawson, Robert A., 2010. "Human Rights and Economic Liberalization," Business and Politics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 12(2), pages 1-18, August.
    42. Richard J. Cebula & Maggie Foley & Joshua C. Hall, 2016. "Freedom and gross in-migration: an empirical study of the post-great recession experience," Journal of Economics and Finance, Springer;Academy of Economics and Finance, vol. 40(2), pages 402-420, April.
    43. Efendic, Adnan & Pugh, Geoff & Adnett, Nick, 2011. "Institutions and economic performance: A meta-regression analysis," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 586-599, September.
    44. Hall Joshua C. & Lawson Robert A. & Wogsland Rachael, 2011. "The European Union and Economic Freedom," Global Economy Journal, De Gruyter, vol. 11(3), pages 1-16, September.
    45. Carden Art & Lawson Robert A., 2010. "Human Rights and Economic Liberalization," Business and Politics, De Gruyter, vol. 12(2), pages 1-20, August.
    46. José Aixalá & Gema Fabro, 2009. "Economic freedom, civil liberties, political rights and growth: a causality analysis," Spanish Economic Review, Springer;Spanish Economic Association, vol. 11(3), pages 165-178, September.
    47. Benjamin Powell & Matt E. Ryan, 2006. "Does Development Aid Lead to Economic Freedom?," Journal of Private Enterprise, The Association of Private Enterprise Education, vol. 22(Fall 2006), pages 1-21.
    48. Keefer, Philip & Knack, Stephen, 1997. "Why Don't Poor Countries Catch Up? A Cross-National Test of Institutional Explanation," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 35(3), pages 590-602, July.
    49. Wu, Wenbo & Davis, Otto A, 1999. "The Two Freedoms, Economic Growth and Development: An Empirical Study," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 100(1-2), pages 39-64, July.
    50. Julan Du, 2010. "Institutional Quality and Economic Crises: Legal Origin Theory versus Colonial Strategy Theory," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 92(1), pages 173-179, February.
    51. Keefer, Philip & Stasavage, David, 2003. "The Limits of Delegation: Veto Players, Central Bank Independence, and the Credibility of Monetary Policy," American Political Science Review, Cambridge University Press, vol. 97(3), pages 407-423, August.
    52. Elert, Niklas & Halvardsson, Daniel, 2012. "Economic Freedom and Institutional Convergence," Ratio Working Papers 200, The Ratio Institute.
    53. Dawson, John W, 1998. "Institutions, Investment, and Growth: New Cross-Country and Panel Data Evidence," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 36(4), pages 603-619, October.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Joshua Hall & John Levendis & Alexandre R. Scarcioffolo, 2020. "The Efficient Corruption Hypothesis and the Dynamics Between Economic Freedom, Corruption, and National Income," Journal of Developing Areas, Tennessee State University, College of Business, vol. 54(3), pages 161-175, July-Sept.
    2. Joshua C. Hall, 2017. "A "Model" Model: McCloskey and the Craft of Economics," Working Papers 17-09, Department of Economics, West Virginia University.
    3. Benjamin Powell & Matt E. Ryan, 2017. "The Global Spread of Think Tanks and Economic Freedom," Journal of Private Enterprise, The Association of Private Enterprise Education, vol. 32(Fall 2017), pages 17-31.
    4. Colin O’Reilly & Ryan H. Murphy, 2017. "Exogenous Resource Shocks and Economic Freedom," Comparative Economic Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Association for Comparative Economic Studies, vol. 59(3), pages 243-260, September.
    5. Ryan H. Murphy & Colin O’Reilly, 2019. "Applying panel vector autoregression to institutions, human capital, and output," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 57(5), pages 1633-1652, November.
    6. Raymond J. March & Conrad Lyford & Benjamin Powell, 2017. "Causes and barriers to increases in economic freedom," International Review of Economics, Springer;Happiness Economics and Interpersonal Relations (HEIRS), vol. 64(1), pages 87-103, March.
    7. Ryan H. Murphy, 2019. "The long‐run effect of government ideology on economic freedom," Economic Affairs, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 39(1), pages 101-114, February.
    8. Garett Jones & Ryan Fraser, 2021. "Immigration's Effect on Institutional Quality: The Place of Simpler Evidence," Econ Journal Watch, Econ Journal Watch, vol. 18(1), pages 1-3–20, March.
    9. Arye L. Hillman & Niklas Potrafke, 2016. "Economic Freedom and Religion: An Empirical Investigation," CESifo Working Paper Series 6017, CESifo.
    10. Ryan H. Murphy, 2019. "Governance and the dimensions of autocracy," Constitutional Political Economy, Springer, vol. 30(2), pages 131-148, June.
    11. Claudio Detotto & Bryan C. McCannon, 2017. "Economic freedom and public, non-market institutions: evidence from criminal prosecution," Economics of Governance, Springer, vol. 18(2), pages 107-128, May.
    12. Arye L. Hillman & Niklas Potrafke, 2018. "Economic Freedom and Religion," Public Finance Review, , vol. 46(2), pages 249-275, March.
    13. Jordi López-Tamayo & Raul Ramos & Jordi Suriñach i Caralt, 2018. "Economic performance, social progress and institutional reform in European neighbouring countries," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 60(3), pages 613-636, May.
    14. Ryan H. Murphy, 2021. "Plausibly exogenous causes of economic freedom," Journal of Bioeconomics, Springer, vol. 23(1), pages 85-105, April.
    15. Ryan H. Murphy & Taylor Leland Smith, 2018. "Aggregate demand shortfalls and economic freedom," The Review of Austrian Economics, Springer;Society for the Development of Austrian Economics, vol. 31(1), pages 111-122, March.
    16. Robert A. Lawson & Ryan Murphy & Benjamin Powell, 2020. "The Determinants Of Economic Freedom: A Survey," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 38(4), pages 622-642, October.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Rode, Martin & Gwartney, James D., 2012. "Does democratization facilitate economic liberalization?," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 607-619.
    2. Joshua C. Hall & Donald J. Lacombe & Timothy M. Shaughnessy, 2015. "Economic Freedom and Economic Growth Across U.S. States: A Spatial Panel Data Analysis," Working Papers 15-33, Department of Economics, West Virginia University.
    3. Sobel, Russell S., 2017. "The rise and decline of nations: the dynamic properties of institutional reform 1," Journal of Institutional Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 13(3), pages 549-574, September.
    4. Jakob De Haan & Susanna Lundström & Jan‐Egbert Sturm, 2006. "Market‐oriented institutions and policies and economic growth: A critical survey," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(2), pages 157-191, April.
    5. Judit Kapás & Pál Czeglédi, 2017. "Institutions and policies of economic freedom: different effects on income and growth," Economia Politica: Journal of Analytical and Institutional Economics, Springer;Fondazione Edison, vol. 34(2), pages 259-282, August.
    6. Daniel L. Bennett & Boris Nikolaev, 2017. "Economic Freedom & Happiness Inequality: Friends Or Foes?," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 35(2), pages 373-391, April.
    7. Nejad, Maryam Naghsh & Young, Andrew T., 2016. "Want freedom, will travel: Emigrant self-selection according to institutional quality," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 45(S), pages 71-84.
    8. Young, Andrew T. & Lawson, Robert A., 2014. "Capitalism and labor shares: A cross-country panel study," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 20-36.
    9. Robert A. Lawson & Ryan Murphy & Benjamin Powell, 2020. "The Determinants Of Economic Freedom: A Survey," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 38(4), pages 622-642, October.
    10. Justesen, Mogens K., 2008. "The effect of economic freedom on growth revisited: New evidence on causality from a panel of countries 1970-1999," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 24(3), pages 642-660, September.
    11. Young, Andrew T. & Sheehan, Kathleen M., 2014. "Foreign aid, institutional quality, and growth," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 195-208.
    12. Martin Rode & Julio Revuelta, 2015. "The Wild Bunch! An empirical note on populism and economic institutions," Economics of Governance, Springer, vol. 16(1), pages 73-96, February.
    13. Bennett, Daniel L. & Faria, Hugo J. & Gwartney, James D. & Morales, Daniel R., 2017. "Economic Institutions and Comparative Economic Development: A Post-Colonial Perspective," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 96(C), pages 503-519.
    14. Krieger, Tim & Meierrieks, Daniel, 2016. "Political capitalism: The interaction between income inequality, economic freedom and democracy," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 115-132.
    15. Claudia Williamson & Rachel Mathers, 2011. "Economic freedom, culture, and growth," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 148(3), pages 313-335, September.
    16. Slesman, Ly & Baharumshah, Ahmad Zubaidi & Ra'ees, Wahabuddin, 2015. "Institutional infrastructure and economic growth in member countries of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC)," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 214-226.
    17. Hatice KÜÇÜKKAYA, 2017. "EUREFE’17 International Conference," Turkish Economic Review, KSP Journals, vol. 4(3), pages 343-344, September.
    18. Islam, Md. Rabiul, 2018. "Wealth inequality, democracy and economic freedom," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(4), pages 920-935.
    19. Kar, Sabyasachi & Roy, Amrita & Sen, Kunal, 2019. "The double trap: Institutions and economic development," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 243-259.
    20. Kathleen M. Sheehan & Andrew T. Young, 2015. "It'S A Small World After All: Internet Access And Institutional Quality," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 33(4), pages 649-667, October.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Convergence; Economic Freedom; Institutional Change; Democracy; Exit;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • O1 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development
    • O43 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - Institutions and Growth
    • P1 - Economic Systems - - Capitalist Systems
    • P48 - Economic Systems - - Other Economic Systems - - - Political Economy; Legal Institutions; Property Rights; Natural Resources; Energy; Environment; Regional Studies

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wvu:wpaper:15-40. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/dewvuus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Josh Hall (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/dewvuus.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.