An Overview of the Literature about Derivatives
A derivative is defined by the BIS (1995) as “a contract whose value depends on the price of underlying assets, but which does not require any investment of principal in those assets. As a contract between two counterparts to exchange payments based on underlying prices or yields, any transfer of ownership of the underlying asset and cash flows becomes unnecessary”. This definition is strictly related to the ability of derivatives of replicating financial instruments2. Derivatives can be divided into 5 types of contracts: Swap, Forward, Future, Option and Repo, the last being the forward contract used by the ECB to manage liquidity in the European inter-bank market. For a further definition of contracts, which should although be known by the reader, see Hull (2002). These 5 types of contracts can be combined with each other in order to create a synthetic asset/liability, which suits any kind of need; this extreme flexibility and freedom widely explain the incredible growth of these instruments on world financial markets. In section 2 I will look at some micro-economic results about derivatives; in section 3 the issue of risk is addressed; in section 4 monetary policy results about derivatives are shown, and in section 5 fiscal policy results are shortly presented. In a brief statistical appendix some relevant data are presented.
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- Michael R. Darby, 1994. "Over-the-Counter Derivatives and Systemic Risk to the Global Financial System," NBER Working Papers 4801, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Helios Herrera & Enrique Schroth, 2003.
"Profitable Innovation Without Patent Protection: The Case of Derivatives,"
FAME Research Paper Series
rp76, International Center for Financial Asset Management and Engineering.
- Helios Herrera & Enrique Schroth, 2003. "Profitable Innovation Without Patent Protection: The Case of Derivatives," Working Papers 0302, Centro de Investigacion Economica, ITAM.
- Joe Peek & Eric S. Rosengren, 1996.
"Derivatives Activity at Troubled Banks,"
Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers
96-52, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
- Subramanian S. Sriram, 1999. "Survey of Literature on Demand for Money; Theoretical and Empirical Work with Special Reference to Error-Correction Models," IMF Working Papers 99/64, International Monetary Fund.
- Peter Breuer, 2000. "Measuring off-Balance-Sheet Leverage," IMF Working Papers 00/202, International Monetary Fund.
- von Hagen, Jürgen & Fender, Ingo, 1998.
"Central bank policy in a more perfect financial system,"
ZEI Working Papers
B 03-1998, University of Bonn, ZEI - Center for European Integration Studies.
- Jürgen Von Hagen & Ingo Fender, 1998. "Central Bank Policy in a More Perfect Financial System," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 9(1), pages 493-532, January.
- Paolo Savona & Aurelio Maccario & Chiara Oldani, 2000. "On Monetary Analysis of Derivatives," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 11(1), pages 149-175, August.
- Hogan, Arthur M. B. & Malmquist, David H., 1999. "Barriers to depository uses of derivatives: an empirical analysis," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 9(3-4), pages 419-440, November.
- Hentschel, Ludger & Smith, Clifford Jr., 1997. "Derivatives regulation: Implications for central banks," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 305-346, October.
- Elijah Brewer, III & Bernadette A. Minton & James T. Moser, 1996.
"Interest-rate derivatives and bank lending,"
Working Paper Series, Macroeconomic Issues
WP-96-13, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
- Peter A. Tinsley, 1998. "Short rate expectations, term premiums, and central bank use of derivatives to reduce policy uncertainty," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1999-14, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Ingo Fender, 2000. "Corporate hedging: the impact of financial derivatives on the broad credit channel of monetary policy," BIS Working Papers 94, Bank for International Settlements.
- Vijay Bhasin, 1995. "On the credit risk of OTC derivative users," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 95-50, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Conrad, Jennifer, 1989. " The Price Effect of Option Introduction," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(2), pages 487-98, June.
- Paolo Savona & Aurelio Maccario, 1998. "On the Relation between Money and Derivatives and its Application to the International Monetary Market," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 9(1), pages 637-664, January.
- Craig, Alastair & Dravid, Ajay & Richardson, Matthew, 1995. "Market efficiency around the clock Some supporting evidence using foreign-based derivatives," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(2-3), pages 161-180.
- Allayannis, George & Ofek, Eli, 2001. "Exchange rate exposure, hedging, and the use of foreign currency derivatives," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 273-296, April.
- Ireland, Peter N, 1995.
"Endogenous Financial Innovation and the Demand for Money,"
Journal of Money, Credit and Banking,
Blackwell Publishing, vol. 27(1), pages 107-23, February.
- Peter N. Ireland, 1992. "Endogenous financial innovation and the demand for money," Working Paper 92-03, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond.
- Arturo Estrella & Frederic S. Mishkin, 1996.
"Is There a Role for Monetary Aggregates in the Conduct of Monetary Policy?,"
NBER Working Papers
5845, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Estrella, Arturo & Mishkin, Frederic S., 1997. "Is there a role for monetary aggregates in the conduct of monetary policy?," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 279-304, October.
- Gary Gorton & Richard Rosen, 1995.
"Banks and Derivatives,"
Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers
95-07, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
- Gary Gorton & Richard Rosen, . "Banks and Derivatives," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 6-95, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
- Gary Gorton & Richard Rosen, . "Banks and Derivatives," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 06-95, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
- Gary Gorton & Richard J. Rosen, 1995. "Banks and derivatives," Working Papers 95-12, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
- Gary Gorton & Richard Rosen, 1995. "Banks and Derivatives," NBER Working Papers 5100, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Glennon, Dennis & Lane, Julia, 1996. "Financial innovation, new assets, and the behavior of money demand," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 207-225, March.
- Robert M. Heath, 1998. "The Statistical Measurement of Financial Derivatives," IMF Working Papers 98/24, International Monetary Fund.
- Garber, Peter M, 1996. "Managing Risks to Financial Markets from Volatile Capital Flows: The Role of Prudential Regulation," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 1(3), pages 183-95, July.
- Armando MÃ©ndez Morales, 2001. "Monetary Implications of Cross-Border Derivatives for Emerging Economies," IMF Working Papers 01/58, International Monetary Fund.
- Hentschel, Ludger & Kothari, S. P., 2001. "Are Corporations Reducing or Taking Risks with Derivatives?," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 36(01), pages 93-118, March.
- Gregory W. Brown & Klaus Bjerre Toft, 2002. "How Firms Should Hedge," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 15(4), pages 1283-1324.
- Massimo Massa, 2002. "Financial Innovation and Information: The Role of Derivatives When a Market for Information Exists," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 15(3), pages 927-957.
- Cohen, Benjamin H, 1999. "Derivatives, Volatility and Price Discovery," International Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 2(2), pages 167-202, July.
- Peter M. Garber, 1998. "Derivatives in International Capital Flows," NBER Working Papers 6623, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Coenraad Vrolijk, 1997. "Derivatives Effect on Monetary Policy Transmission," IMF Working Papers 97/121, International Monetary Fund.
- M. B. Haugh & A. W. Lo, 2001. "Asset allocation and derivatives," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 1(1), pages 45-72.
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