On the Relation between Money and Derivatives and its Application to the International Monetary Market
The paper deals with the problem of defining money in a system with derivatives. We conclude that derivatives have to be included in the definition of money, and support our conclusions with an econometric test on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and Chicago Board of Trade indexes. We focus on the direct relationship between derivatives' supply and the interest rate, the analytical basis of speculative money demand introduced by Keynes and the foundation of the Fratianni-Savona model to single out the international monetary base. Consequently, monetary aggregates measured by international institutions, such as the Bank for International Settlements, underestimate the actual offshore market size. Derivatives are the primary instruments used by speculators. There is money, mainly in reserve currencies, that is not controlled and that may cause systemic instability (e.g., the recent Asian crisis). Copyright Kluwer Academic Publishers 1998
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