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Child Poverty in Vietnam: Using Adult Equivalence Scales to Estimate Income-Poverty for Different Age Groups

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  • Howard White

    (Institute of Development Studies)

Abstract

Estimates of child poverty are based on the percentage of children living in poor households, which ignores the issue of intrahousehold allocation. It is commonly argued that the fact that data are collected at the household level means it is not possible to report figures relating to the number of children living in poverty. Yet analysts using income and expenditure data routinely make adjustments to these data which implicitly tell us exactly how much of household expenditure is going on each child. These adjustments are the use of adult equivalence scales. These scales give child consumption as a proportion of that of an adult male, and hence can be used to calculate child consumption shares. These scales may be estimated econometrically, and are hence based on intra-household allocation patterns for the households under study. Moreover, the scales can be estimated separately for different sub-samples of the population, allowing estimates of child poverty rates for different groups; for example how child poverty differs between boys and girls or for different ethnic groups. This paper presents such estimates in the case of Vietnam.

Suggested Citation

  • Howard White, 2005. "Child Poverty in Vietnam: Using Adult Equivalence Scales to Estimate Income-Poverty for Different Age Groups," Development and Comp Systems 0504016, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpdc:0504016
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Haughton, Dominique & Haughton, Jonathan, 1997. "Explaining Child Nutrition in Vietnam," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 45(3), pages 541-556, April.
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    5. Lancaster, Geoffrey & Ray, Ranjan & Valenzuela, Maria Rebecca, 1999. "A Cross-Country Study of Equivalence Scales and Expenditure Inequality on Unit Record Household Budget Data," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 45(4), pages 455-482, December.
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    13. Van Praag, Bernard M.S. & Warnaar, Marcel F., 1993. "The cost of children and the use of demographic variables in consumer demand," Handbook of Population and Family Economics,in: M. R. Rosenzweig & Stark, O. (ed.), Handbook of Population and Family Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 6, pages 241-273 Elsevier.
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    Cited by:

    1. Eozenou, Patrick, 2008. "Optimal Risk Sharing Under Limited Commitment: Evidence From Rural Vietnam," MPRA Paper 12688, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Rizwana Siddiqui, 2009. "Modeling Gender Effects of Pakistan's Trade Liberalization," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(3), pages 287-321.
    3. Baulch, Bob & Masset, Edoardo, 2003. "Do Monetary and Nonmonetary Indicators Tell the Same Story About Chronic Poverty? A Study of Vietnam in the 1990s," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 441-453, March.
    4. Bruno Arpino & Arnstein Aassve, 2013. "Estimating the causal effect of fertility on economic wellbeing: data requirements, identifying assumptions and estimation methods," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 44(1), pages 355-385, February.
    5. Judith Streak & Derek Yu & Servaas Van der Berg, 2009. "Measuring Child Poverty in South Africa: Sensitivity to the Choice of Equivalence Scale and an Updated Profile," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 94(2), pages 183-201, November.
    6. Roelen, Keetie & Gassmann, Franziska, 2008. "Measuring Child Poverty and Well-Being: a literature review," MPRA Paper 8981, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Bruno Arpino & Arnstein Aassve, 2014. "The role of villages in households’ poverty exit: evidence from a multilevel model for rural Vietnam," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 48(4), pages 2175-2189, July.
    8. Nguyen Viet, Cuong, 2010. "Ethnic minority children’s access to public services in Vietnam," MPRA Paper 33611, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Ngo, Thu Hien Laura & Santos, Paulo, 2012. "Geography and economic growth in Vietnam," 2012 Annual Meeting, August 12-14, 2012, Seattle, Washington 126489, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    10. Rizwana Siddiqui, 2007. "Modelling Gender Dimensions of the Impact of Economic Reforms in Pakistan," Working Papers MPIA 2007-13, PEP-MPIA.
    11. World Bank, 2008. "How do Women Fare in Education, Employment, and Health? A Gender Analysis of the 2006 Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey," World Bank Other Operational Studies 7737, The World Bank.
    12. Monica Guillen-Royo, 2008. "Consumption and Subjective Wellbeing: Exploring Basic Needs, Social Comparison, Social Integration and Hedonism in Peru," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 89(3), pages 535-555, December.
    13. Rizwana Siddiqui, 2005. "Modelling Gender Dimensions of the Impact of Economic Reforms on Time Allocation among Market, Household, and Leisure Activities in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 44(4), pages 615-639.
    14. Molini, Vasco & Nubé, Maarten & van den Boom, Bart, 2010. "Adult BMI as a Health and Nutritional Inequality Measure: Applications at Macro and Micro Levels," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(7), pages 1012-1023, July.
    15. Garcia-Diaz Rocio, 2012. "Demand-Based Cost-of-Children Estimates and Child Poverty," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 12(1), pages 1-32, January.
    16. Ngo, Thu Hien Laura & Santos, Paulo, 2012. "Geography and economic growth in Vietnam," 2012 Conference, August 18-24, 2012, Foz do Iguacu, Brazil 126491, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    17. Rizwana Siddiqui, 2004. "Modelling Gender Dimensions of the Impact of Economic Reforms on Time Allocation among Market Work,Household Work, and Leisure," PIDE-Working Papers 2004:185, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
    18. McCulloch, Neil & Calandrino, Michele, 2003. "Vulnerability and Chronic Poverty in Rural Sichuan," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 611-628, March.
    19. Aassve, Arnstein & Arpino, Bruno, 2008. "Estimation of causal effects of fertility on economic wellbeing: evidence from rural Vietnam," ISER Working Paper Series 2007-27, Institute for Social and Economic Research.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Children; poverty measurement; Vietnam; household survey data;

    JEL classification:

    • O - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth
    • P - Economic Systems

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