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Modeling Gender Effects of Pakistan's Trade Liberalization

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  • Rizwana Siddiqui

Abstract

This study uses a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model specially constructed for investigating gender dimensions of the effects of trade liberalization in Pakistan in both production and consumption. The model employs various indicators to measure the gendered impacts, including income poverty (Foster-Greer-Thorbecke [FGT] Indices), time poverty (leisure), capability poverty (literacy and infant mortality), and welfare (Equivalent Variation [EV]). The simulation results show that revenue-neutral trade liberalization in Pakistan increased women's employment in unskilled jobs and increased women's real wage income more than men's for all types of labor, but kept the division of labor biased against women. The study finds that Pakistan's trade liberalization adversely affected women in relatively poor households by increasing their workload, deteriorating capabilities, and increasing relative income poverty. However, the effects remained gender neutral or favored women in the richest group of households.

Suggested Citation

  • Rizwana Siddiqui, 2009. "Modeling Gender Effects of Pakistan's Trade Liberalization," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(3), pages 287-321.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:femeco:v:15:y:2009:i:3:p:287-321
    DOI: 10.1080/13545700902964295
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Martin Browning & Pierre-André Chiappori & Arthur Lewbel, 2013. "Estimating Consumption Economies of Scale, Adult Equivalence Scales, and Household Bargaining Power," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 80(4), pages 1267-1303.
    2. Haddad, Lawrence & Hoddinott, John & Alderman, Harold & DEC, 1994. "Intrahousehold resource allocation : an overview," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1255, The World Bank.
    3. White, Howard & Masset, Edoardo, 2002. "Child poverty in Vietnam: using adult equivalence scales to estimate income-poverty for different age groups," MPRA Paper 777, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Rizwana Siddiqui, 2008. "Income, Public Social Services, and Capability Development: A Cross-district Analysis of Pakistan," PIDE-Working Papers 2008:43, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Audi, Marc & Ali, Amjad, 2016. "Gender Gap and Trade Liberalization: An Analysis of some selected SAARC countries," MPRA Paper 83520, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. repec:ksp:journ6:v:4:y:2017:i:4:p:381-387 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Gaddis, Isis & Pieters, Janneke, 2012. "Trade Liberalization and Female Labor Force Participation: Evidence from Brazil," IZA Discussion Papers 6809, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Capabilities; gender; poverty; trade liberalization; JEL Codes: C68; J16; O24;

    JEL classification:

    • C68 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Computable General Equilibrium Models
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • O24 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Development Planning and Policy - - - Trade Policy; Factor Movement; Foreign Exchange Policy

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