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Modelling Gender Dimensions of the Impact of Economic Reforms on Time Allocation among Market, Household, and Leisure Activities in Pakistan


  • Rizwana Siddiqui

    (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad.)


Developing countries are increasingly concerned about gender dimensions of the impacts of economic reforms initiated under the structural adjustment and stabilisation programmes. This article develops a gendered Computable General Equilibrium model based on the notions of production in paid economy and unpaid care economy pioneered by Fontana and Wood and applies it to Pakistan. The study assesses the impact of two types of shocks: trade liberalisation and fiscal adjustment. Results support the contention that trade liberalisation in the presence of compensatory measures overburdens women but reduces income-based poverty by all measures. In all other exercises, employment in the market sectors is decreased. The study concludes that despite significant changes in market employment, gender division of labour remains unequal within household economy.

Suggested Citation

  • Rizwana Siddiqui, 2005. "Modelling Gender Dimensions of the Impact of Economic Reforms on Time Allocation among Market, Household, and Leisure Activities in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 44(4), pages 615-639.
  • Handle: RePEc:pid:journl:v:44:y:2005:i:4:p:615-639

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Rizwana Siddiqui & Zafar Iqbal, 1999. "Social Accounting Matrix of Pakistan for 1989-90," PIDE-Working Papers 1999:171, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
    2. White, Howard & Masset, Edoardo, 2002. "Child poverty in Vietnam: using adult equivalence scales to estimate income-poverty for different age groups," MPRA Paper 777, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Foster, James & Greer, Joel & Thorbecke, Erik, 1984. "A Class of Decomposable Poverty Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(3), pages 761-766, May.
    4. Rizwana Siddiqui & A. R. Kemal, 2006. "Remittances, Trade Liberalisation, and Poverty in Pakistan: The Role of Excluded Variables in Poverty Change Analysis," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 45(3), pages 383-415.
    5. Moser, Caroline O. N., 1989. "Gender planning in the third world: Meeting practical and strategic gender needs," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 17(11), pages 1799-1825, November.
    6. Pyatt, Graham, 1990. "Accounting for Time Use," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 36(1), pages 33-52, March.
    7. Channing Arndt & Finn Tarp, 2008. "Trade Policy Reform and the Missing Revenue †," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 17(1), pages 131-160, January.
    8. Arndt, Channing & Tarp, Finn, 2003. "Trade Policy Reform and the Missing Revenue: A Gendered Analysis for Mozambique," MPRA Paper 62441, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Decaluwe, B. & Patry, A. & Savard, L. & Thorbecke, E., 1999. "Poverty Analysis Within a General Equilibrium Framework," Cahiers de recherche 9909, Université Laval - Département d'économique.
    10. Rehana Siddiqui & Rizwana Siddiqui & Zafar Iqbal, 1999. "The Impact of Tariff Reforms on Income Distribution in Pakistan: A CGE-based Analysis," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 38(4), pages 789-804.
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    Cited by:

    1. Latorre, Maria C., 2014. "CGE analysis of the impact of foreign direct investment and tariff reform on female and male wages," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7073, The World Bank.
    2. repec:ilo:ilowps:427404 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Filipski, Mateusz & Edward Taylor, J. & Msangi, Siwa, 2011. "Effects of Free Trade on Women and Immigrants: CAFTA and the Rural Dominican Republic," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(10), pages 1862-1877.
    4. Antonopoulos, Rania., 2009. "The unpaid care work : paid work connection," ILO Working Papers 994274043402676, International Labour Organization.

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    JEL classification:

    • F16 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade and Labor Market Interactions
    • F1 - International Economics - - Trade


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