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Remittances, trade liberalisation, and poverty in Pakistan: The role of excluded variables in poverty change analysis

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  • Siddiqui, Rizwana
  • Kemal, A.R.

Abstract

This paper explores the impact of two shocks, trade liberalisation policies and decline in remittances, on welfare and poverty in Pakistan. It begins by reviewing the economy, which reveals that during the Nineties although import tariffs were reduced by 55 percent, poverty however remained higher in this period than in the Eighties. At the same time, Pakistan has experienced a slow down in the inflow of remittances, which reduces the incomes of households and puts pressure on the exchange rate resulting in reduction in the inflow of imports despite a reduction in import duties. Thus, in the absence of the effects of decline in remittances, the analysis of the impact of trade liberalisation policies may render biased results. This study overcomes this constriction and analyses the impact of trade liberalisation policies in the absence and presence of decline in remittances in a CGE framework with all the features necessary for trade policy analysis with poverty and remittances linkages. The simulation results show that a decline in remittances reduces the gains from trade liberalisation. The negative impact of remittance decline dominates the positive impact of trade liberalisation in urban areas. But, the positive impact of trade liberalisation dominates the negative impact of a decline in remittances in the case of rural areas. Poverty rises in Pakistan as a whole. It shows that the decline in remittance inflows is a major contributory factor in explaining the increase in poverty in Pakistan during the Nineties.

Suggested Citation

  • Siddiqui, Rizwana & Kemal, A.R., 2002. "Remittances, trade liberalisation, and poverty in Pakistan: The role of excluded variables in poverty change analysis," MPRA Paper 4228, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Oct 2006.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:4228
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. John Cockburn, 2002. "Trade Liberalisation and Poverty in Nepal: A Computable General Equilibrium Micro Simulation Analysis," CSAE Working Paper Series 2002-11, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
    2. Rizwana Siddiqui & Zafar Iqbal, 1999. "Social Accounting Matrix of Pakistan for 1989-90," PIDE-Working Papers 1999:171, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
    3. Foster, James & Greer, Joel & Thorbecke, Erik, 1984. "A Class of Decomposable Poverty Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(3), pages 761-766, May.
    4. Siddiqui, Rizwana & Kemal, A R, 2006. "Poverty-reducing or Poverty-inducing? A CGE-based Analysis of Foreign Capital Inflows in Pakistan," MPRA Paper 2283, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Clarete, Ramon L. & Whalley, John, 1988. "Interactions between trade policies and domestic distortions in a small open developing country," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(3-4), pages 345-358, May.
    6. A. R. Kemal, 1981. "Substitution Elasticities in the Large- Scale Manufacturing Industries of Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 20(1), pages 1-36.
    7. Mohammad, Irfan, 1999. "Emigration from Pakistan - 1947-97," MPRA Paper 38623, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Decaluwe, B. & Patry, A. & Savard, L. & Thorbecke, E., 1999. "Poverty Analysis Within a General Equilibrium Framework," Cahiers de recherche 9909, Université Laval - Département d'économique.
    9. Sohail J. Malik & Mohammad Mushtaq & Hina Nazli, 1989. "An Analysis of Production Relations in the Large-scale Textile Manufacturing Sector of Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 28(1), pages 27-42.
    10. Rehana Siddiqui & Rizwana Siddiqui & Zafar Iqbal, 1999. "The Impact of Tariff Reforms on Income Distribution in Pakistan: A CGE-based Analysis," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 38(4), pages 789-804.
    11. Hans De Kruijk, 1987. "Sources of Income Inequality in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 26(4), pages 659-672.
    12. Rashid Amjad & A.R. Kemal, 1997. "Macroeconomic Policies and their Impact on Poverty Alleviation in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 36(1), pages 39-68.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Pakistan; Remittances; Trade Policy; CGE; Poverty;

    JEL classification:

    • C68 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Computable General Equilibrium Models
    • F24 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Remittances
    • F1 - International Economics - - Trade

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