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Emigration from Pakistan - 1947-97


  • Mohammad, Irfan


This paper is reflective of an attempt to construct a temporal profile of emigration from Pakistan over the past five decades. As detailed in the paper there have been distinct types of emigration streams distinguished on the basis of size, skill composition, duration of stay abroad and nature of links maintained with the sending country. First part of the paper presents these details. In the second part of the paper the impact of this emigration on economy and society is discussed briefly. Evidence pertaining to the effects of labour exodus and inflow of remittance on the household, labour market, and economy is examined. Also the return migration and its ramification for settlement are highlighted. Finally while summarising the findings some speculations about existing emigration pressures are presented in the final section. It needs to be highlighted that the research exercise is based on the data set which suffers from various limitations. The information pertaining to labour exodus is based on either the censuses of the receiving countries or the registration data of Pakistan. The latter set of data is incomplete because it does not cover illegal migration as well as all migrants do not register themselves. Similarly it is difficult to capture all the financial flows (remittances) associated with emigration. Non official transfers, foreign exchange inflow embodied in the commodity transactions particularly smuggling and others are not incorporated in the analysis.

Suggested Citation

  • Mohammad, Irfan, 1999. "Emigration from Pakistan - 1947-97," MPRA Paper 38623, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:38623

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Amjad, Rashid, 1989. "Economic impact of migration to the Middle East on the major Asian labour sending countries - an overview," MPRA Paper 38134, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Mohammad, Irfan & Amjad, Rashid, 1994. "Poverty in rural Pakistan," MPRA Paper 38335, University Library of Munich, Germany.
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    Cited by:

    1. Rizwana Siddiqui & A. R. Kemal, 2006. "Remittances, Trade Liberalisation, and Poverty in Pakistan: The Role of Excluded Variables in Poverty Change Analysis," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 45(3), pages 383-415.

    More about this item


    Temporal profile of emigration; Pakistan; emigration streams; impact of emigration; labour; remittances; labor market; return migration; settlement;

    JEL classification:

    • F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration
    • O1 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
    • R2 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis


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