IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/fpr/resrep/86.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The effects of international remittances on poverty, inequality, and development in rural Egypt:

Author

Listed:
  • Adams, Richard H., Jr.

Abstract

Despite their importance, there has been little analysis and even less agreement about the effects of international remittances on the economies of labor-exporting countries. Do households with migrant workers "squander" the money earned abroad on newly desired consumer goods? Are remittances largely earned by the sons of already well-to-do households? Do remittances increase the degree of income inequality between richer and poorer rural households? In this report, the author examines these issues from the standpoint of a small area of rural Egypt. Adams uses income data from households with and without migrants to determine the effects of remittances on poverty, income distribution, and rural development. The study is based on a survey of 1,000 households conducted in 1 986/87 in three villages in Minya Governorate, a province about 250 kilometers south of Cairo. In a second round of the survey, 150 selected households were interviewed about their spending behavior. Although the research is based on rural Egypt, its findings are relevant for policymakers in other labor-exporting countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Adams, Richard H., Jr., 1991. "The effects of international remittances on poverty, inequality, and development in rural Egypt:," Research reports 86, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  • Handle: RePEc:fpr:resrep:86
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/rr86.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Alderman, Harold & von Braun, Joachim & Sakr, Sakr Ahmed, 1982. "Egypt's food subsidy and rationing system: a description," Research reports 34, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    2. Ram, Rati & Singh, Ram D., 1988. "Farm households in rural Burkina Faso: Some evidence on allocative and direct return to schooling, and male-female labor productivity differentials," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 419-424, March.
    3. Jacob A. Mincer, 1974. "Schooling, Experience, and Earnings," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number minc74-1, January.
    4. Knowles, James C. & Anker, Richard, 1981. "An analysis of income transfers in a developing country : The case of Kenya," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 205-226, April.
    5. Russell, Sharon Stanton, 1986. "Remittances from international migration: A review in perspective," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 14(6), pages 677-696, June.
    6. Sally Findley, 1987. "An interactive contextual model of migration in Ilocos Norte, the Philippines," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 24(2), pages 163-190, May.
    7. Choucri, Nazli, 1986. "The hidden economy: A new view of remittances in the arab world," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 14(6), pages 697-712, June.
    8. Ijaz Gilani & M. Fahim Khan & Munawar Iqbal, 1981. "Labour Migration from Pakistan to the Middle East and Its Impact on the Domestic Economy Part I (Cost-Benefit Analysis)," PIDE-Working Papers 1981:126, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
    9. House, William J. & Rempel, Henry, 1980. "The determinants of interregional migration in Kenya," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 25-35, January.
    10. Simon Commander & Aly Abdullah Hadhoud, 1986. "From Labour Surplus to Labour Scarcity? The Agricultural Labour Market in Egypt," Development Policy Review, Overseas Development Institute, vol. 4(2), pages 161-180, June.
    11. repec:ilo:ilowps:211439 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Milton Friedman, 1957. "A Theory of the Consumption Function," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number frie57-1, January.
    13. Bruton, Henry J, 1983. "Egypt's Development in the Seventies," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 31(4), pages 679-704, July.
    14. Jacob A. Mincer, 1974. "Schooling and Earnings," NBER Chapters, in: Schooling, Experience, and Earnings, pages 41-63, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    15. Flavin, Marjorie A, 1981. "The Adjustment of Consumption to Changing Expectations about Future Income," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 89(5), pages 974-1009, October.
    16. Harris, John R & Todaro, Michael P, 1970. "Migration, Unemployment & Development: A Two-Sector Analysis," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 60(1), pages 126-142, March.
    17. Falaris, Evangelos M, 1979. "The Determinants of Internal Migration in Peru: An Economic Analysis," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 27(2), pages 327-341, January.
    18. Guisinger, Stephen E. & Henderson, James W. & Scully, Gerald W., 1984. "Earnings, rates of return to education and the earnings distribution in Pakistan," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 257-267, August.
    19. Lawrence Brown & Andrew Goetz, 1987. "Development-related contextual effects and individual attributes in third world migration processes: A Venezuelan example," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 24(4), pages 497-516, November.
    20. Adams, Richard H, Jr, 1989. "Worker Remittances and Inequality in Rural Egypt," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 38(1), pages 45-71, October.
    21. Stark, Oded & Taylor, J Edward & Yitzhaki, Shlomo, 1986. "Remittances and Inequality," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 96(383), pages 722-740, September.
    22. Richard Bilsborrow & Thomas McDevitt & Sherrie Kossoudji & Richard Fuller, 1987. "The impact of origin community characteristics on rural-urban out-migration in a developing country," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 24(2), pages 191-210, May.
    23. Cox, Donald & Jimenez, Emmanuel, 1990. "Achieving Social Objectives through Private Transfers: A Review," The World Bank Research Observer, World Bank, vol. 5(2), pages 205-218, July.
    24. Bilsborrow, Richard E., 1981. "Surveys of internal migration in low-income countries: the need for and content of community-level variables," ILO Working Papers 992114393402676, International Labour Organization.
    25. Lipton, Michael, 1980. "Migration from rural areas of poor countries: The impact on rural productivity and income distribution," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 1-24, January.
    26. Stark, Oded, 1980. "On the Role of Urban-to-Rural Remittances in Rural Development," EconStor Open Access Articles and Book Chapters, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, vol. 16(3), pages 369-374.
    27. Carvajal, Manuel J & Geithman, David T, 1974. "An Economic Analysis of Migration in Costa Rica," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 23(1), pages 105-122, October.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Chhavi Tiwari & Sankalpa Bhattacharjee & Pradeepta Sethi & Debkumar Chakrabarti, 2022. "Internal Migration and Rural Inequalities in India," Population Research and Policy Review, Springer;Southern Demographic Association (SDA), vol. 41(4), pages 1673-1698, August.
    2. Muhammad Shahbaz & Ijaz Rehman & Nurul Mahdzan, 2014. "Linkages between income inequality, international remittances and economic growth in Pakistan," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 48(3), pages 1511-1535, May.
    3. Martin Kahanec & Klaus F. Zimmermann, 2008. "Migration in an Enlarged EU: A Challenging Solution?," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 849, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    4. Adams, Richard H., Jr., 1996. "Remittances, income distribution, and rural asset accumulation," FCND discussion papers 17, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    5. Lawrence Brown & John Jones, 1985. "Spatial Variation In Migration Processes And Development: A Costa Rican Example Of Conventional Modeling Augmented By The Expansion Method," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 22(3), pages 327-352, August.
    6. Wouterse, F. S., 2008. "Migration, poverty, and inequality: Evidence from Burkina Faso," IFPRI discussion papers 786, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    7. Erik Hurst & Ming Ching Luoh & Frank P. Stafford, 1998. "The Wealth Dynamics of American Families, 1984-94," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 29(1), pages 267-338.
    8. Barham, Bradford & Boucher, Stephen, 1998. "Migration, remittances, and inequality: estimating the net effects of migration on income distribution," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(2), pages 307-331, April.
    9. Theodore Gerber & Karine Torosyan, 2013. "Remittances in the Republic of Georgia: Correlates, Economic Impact, and Social Capital Formation," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 50(4), pages 1279-1301, August.
    10. Tayyeb Shabbir, 1991. "Sheepskin Effects in the Returns to Education in a Developing Country," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 30(1), pages 1-19.
    11. Hanewald, Katja & Jia, Ruo & Liu, Zining, 2021. "Why is inequality higher among the old? Evidence from China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 66(C).
    12. Jean-Pierre Lachaud, 1999. "Envois de fonds, inégalité et pauvreté au Burkina Faso," Revue Tiers Monde, Programme National Persée, vol. 40(160), pages 793-827.
    13. Giesecke, Matthias & Bönke, Timm & Lüthen, Holger, 2011. "The Dynamics of Earnings in Germany: Evidence from Social Security Records," VfS Annual Conference 2011 (Frankfurt, Main): The Order of the World Economy - Lessons from the Crisis 48692, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    14. Lall, Somik V. & Selod, Harris & Shalizi, Zmarak, 2006. "Rural-urban migration in developing countries : a survey of theoretical predictions and empirical findings," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3915, The World Bank.
    15. Simonetta Longhi & Peter Nijkamp & Jacques Poot, 2006. "Spatial Heterogeneity And The Wage Curve Revisited," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 46(4), pages 707-731, October.
    16. Cunha, Flavio & Heckman, James J., 2007. "Identifying and Estimating the Distributions of Ex Post and Ex Ante Returns to Schooling," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(6), pages 870-893, December.
    17. Gary S. Fields, 2004. "Dualism In The Labor Market: A Perspective On The Lewis Model After Half A Century," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 72(6), pages 724-735, December.
    18. Pemberton, James, 1997. "Modelling and measuring income uncertainty in life cycle models," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 81-98, January.
    19. Casey B. Mulligan, 1999. "Substitution over Time: Another Look at Life-Cycle Labor Supply," NBER Chapters, in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1998, volume 13, pages 75-152, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    20. Lillard, Lee A & Willis, Robert J, 1978. "Dynamic Aspects of Earning Mobility," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(5), pages 985-1012, September.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:fpr:resrep:86. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: the person in charge (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/ifprius.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.