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Remittances, income distribution, and rural asset accumulation


  • Adams, Richard H., Jr.


This paper examines the direct, first-rounds impact of two types of remittances—internal and external remittances—on income distribution and asset accumulation in rural Pakistan. Using income decomposition techniques on a three-year panel household data set, the paper finds that internal remittances have a positive effect on equity and that external remittances have a negative effect. The study also uses an asset-accumulation model to pinpoint the effect of remittances on five types of rural assets: irrigated land owned, rainfed land owned, livestock assets, agricultural capital, and nonfarm assets. The results show that remittances do have an effect on rural asset accumulation. While external remittances have a positive and significant effect on the accumulation of land, internal remittances have a positive and significant effect on the accumulation of agricultural capital.

Suggested Citation

  • Adams, Richard H., Jr., 1996. "Remittances, income distribution, and rural asset accumulation," FCND discussion papers 17, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  • Handle: RePEc:fpr:fcnddp:17

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Adams, Richard H, Jr, 1991. "The Economic Uses and Impact of International Remittances in Rural Egypt," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 39(4), pages 695-722, July.
    2. Stark, Oded & Taylor, J Edward & Yitzhaki, Shlomo, 1986. "Remittances and Inequality," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 96(383), pages 722-740, September.
    3. Taylor, J. Edward, 1992. "Remittances and inequality reconsidered: Direct, indirect, and intertemporal effects," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 187-208, April.
    4. Katz, Eliakim & Stark, Oded, 1986. "Labor Migration and Risk Aversion in Less Developed Countries," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 4(1), pages 134-149, January.
    5. Russell, Sharon Stanton, 1986. "Remittances from international migration: A review in perspective," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 14(6), pages 677-696, June.
    6. Hoddinott, John, 1992. "Modelling Remittance Flows in Kenya," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 1(2), pages 206-232, August.
    7. Graham Pyatt & Chau-nan Chen & John Fei, 1980. "The Distribution of Income by Factor Components," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 95(3), pages 451-473.
    8. Lipton, Michael, 1980. "Migration from rural areas of poor countries: The impact on rural productivity and income distribution," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 1-24, January.
    9. Shorrocks, A F, 1982. "Inequality Decomposition by Factor Components," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(1), pages 193-211, January.
    10. Anthony F. Shorrocks, 1983. "The Impact of Income Components on the Distribution of Family Incomes," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 98(2), pages 311-326.
    11. Stark, Oded & Levhari, David, 1982. "On Migration and Risk in LDCs," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 31(1), pages 191-196, October.
    12. Adams, Richard H. Jr. & He, Jane J., 1995. "Sources of income inequality and poverty in rural Pakistan:," Research reports 102, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
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    Cited by:

    1. Estudillo, Jonna P. & Quisumbing, Agnes R. & Otsuka, Keijiro, 2001. "Income distribution in rice-growing villages during the post-Green Revolution periods: the Philippine case, 1985 and 1998," Agricultural Economics of Agricultural Economists, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 25(1), June.
    2. Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela & Sullins, Martha, 1994. "Water markets in Pakistan: participation and productivity," EPTD discussion papers 4, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).


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