Livestock income, male/female animals, and inequality in rural Pakistan
This paper uses income decomposition techniques to demonstrate the importance of livestock income in improving rural income distribution. It is based on three-year household panel data (1986 to 1989) from rural Pakistan. The paper first decomposes total income among five sources: agricultural, nonfarm, livestock, rental and transfer. This shows that livestock income is inequality-decreasing and that it makes the smallest contribution to overall inequality. The study then decomposes the sources of livestock inequality by type of animal. While livestock income from male animals has a negative impact on equity, livestock income from one female animal (local cow) has a positive effect.
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- Glenn, J.C., 1988. "Livestock Production In North Africa And The Middle East - Problems And Perspectives," World Bank - Discussion Papers 39, World Bank.
- Pyatt, Graham & Chen, Chau-nan & Fei, John, 1980. "The Distribution of Income by Factor Components," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 95(3), pages 451-73, November.
- Seabright, P., 1991.
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Cambridge Working Papers in Economics
9104, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
- Seabright, Paul, 1991. "Quality of livestock assets under selective credit schemes : Evidence from South Indian data," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(1-2), pages 327-350, November.
- Shorrocks, A F, 1982. "Inequality Decomposition by Factor Components," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(1), pages 193-211, January.
- Deaton, Angus S & Muellbauer, John, 1986. "On Measuring Child Costs: With Applications to Poor Countries," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(4), pages 720-44, August.
- Alderman, Harold & Garcia, Marito, 1993. "Poverty, household food security, and nutrition in rural Pakistan:," Research reports 96, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
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