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Livestock income, male/female animals, and inequality in rural Pakistan


  • Adams, Richard H., Jr.


This paper uses income decomposition techniques to demonstrate the importance of livestock income in improving rural income distribution. It is based on three-year household panel data (1986 to 1989) from rural Pakistan. The paper first decomposes total income among five sources: agricultural, nonfarm, livestock, rental and transfer. This shows that livestock income is inequality-decreasing and that it makes the smallest contribution to overall inequality. The study then decomposes the sources of livestock inequality by type of animal. While livestock income from male animals has a negative impact on equity, livestock income from one female animal (local cow) has a positive effect.

Suggested Citation

  • Adams, Richard H., Jr., 1996. "Livestock income, male/female animals, and inequality in rural Pakistan," FCND discussion papers 21, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  • Handle: RePEc:fpr:fcnddp:21

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Seabright, Paul, 1991. "Quality of livestock assets under selective credit schemes : Evidence from South Indian data," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(1-2), pages 327-350, November.
    2. Deaton, Angus S & Muellbauer, John, 1986. "On Measuring Child Costs: With Applications to Poor Countries," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(4), pages 720-744, August.
    3. Glenn, J.C., 1988. "Livestock Production In North Africa And The Middle East - Problems And Perspectives," World Bank - Discussion Papers 39, World Bank.
    4. Graham Pyatt & Chau-nan Chen & John Fei, 1980. "The Distribution of Income by Factor Components," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 95(3), pages 451-473.
    5. Alderman, Harold & Garcia, Marito, 1993. "Poverty, household food security, and nutrition in rural Pakistan:," Research reports 96, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    6. Shorrocks, A F, 1982. "Inequality Decomposition by Factor Components," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(1), pages 193-211, January.
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