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Remesas y Migración Internacional en América Latina: Simulación de los Efectos en la Pobreza y la Desigualdad

  • Diego Battistón

    (Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS) - FCE - UNLP y CONICET)

Este trabajo realiza un estudio comparativo del impacto de las remesas y la migración internacional sobre la pobreza y la desigualdad en cuatro países latinoamericanos con importantes procesos migratorios (Ecuador, El Salvador, Honduras y Nicaragua). A partir de encuestas de hogares se estiman los cambios producidos sobre estas dos dimensiones utilizando diferentes microsimulaciones. La metodología utilizada también permite descomponer los cambios totales en efectos directos e indirectos. Los cambios directos están relacionados con la salida del migrante del hogar y la sustitución de ingresos laborales por remesas. Los efectos indirectos (no observables) operan sobre el resto de los miembros del hogar y entre ellos se incluyen restricciones a la liquidez o cambios en las decisiones laborales. La incorporación de un doble mecanismo de selección muestral permite tener en cuenta arreglos intra-hogar que usualmente son excluidos del análisis empírico pero que han recibido fuerte soporte teórico en la literatura. Los resultados indican que en los cuatro países el proceso de migraciones y remesas reduce la desigualdad y en Ecuador, El Salvador y Honduras también se reducen significativamente las tasas de pobreza. La importancia relativa de los canales directos e indirectos depende entre otros factores de las características de los hogares involucrados en el proceso y el tipo de selección que opera sobre los mismos. En términos generales, la sustitución directa de ingreso laboral por remesas tiende a ser más importante cuando los hogares son más pobres mientras que los efectos indirectos se concentran en los hogares con ingresos medios.

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Paper provided by CEDLAS, Universidad Nacional de La Plata in its series CEDLAS, Working Papers with number 0110.

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Length: 44 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2010
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:dls:wpaper:0110
Contact details of provider: Postal: Calle 48 No555 - La Plata (1900)
Phone: 21- 1466
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Web page: http://cedlas.econo.unlp.edu.ar/

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  1. Richard H. Adams, Jr. & John Page, 2003. "International migration, remittances, and poverty in developing countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3179, The World Bank.
  2. Lanzona, Leonardo A., 1998. "Migration, self-selection and earnings in Philippine rural communities," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(1), pages 27-50, June.
  3. Acosta, Pablo & Fajnzylber, Pablo & Lopez, J. Humberto, 2007. "The impact of remittances on poverty and human capital : evidence from Latin American household surveys," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4247, The World Bank.
  4. Dean Yang & HwaJung Choi, 2005. "Are Remittances Insurance? Evidence from Rainfall Shocks in the Philippines," Working Papers 535, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
  5. Lipton, Michael, 1980. "Migration from rural areas of poor countries: The impact on rural productivity and income distribution," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 1-24, January.
  6. Stark, Oded & Taylor, J Edward & Yitzhaki, Shlomo, 1986. "Remittances and Inequality," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 96(383), pages 722-40, September.
  7. Rosenzweig, Mark R, 1988. "Risk, Implicit Contracts and the Family in Rural Areas of Low-income Countries," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 98(393), pages 1148-70, December.
  8. Elke Holst & Mechthild Schrooten, 2006. "Migration and Money - What Determines Remittances?: Evidence from Germany," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 566, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  9. Angus Deaton & Christina Paxson, 1997. "Poverty Among Children And The Elderly In Developing Countries," Working Papers 992, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Center for Research on Child Wellbeing..
  10. José de Hevia & María Arrazola, 2009. "Marginal effects in the double selection regression model: an illustration for the wages of women in Spain," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 29(2), pages 611-621.
  11. Adams, Richard H., Jr., 1991. "The effects of international remittances on poverty, inequality, and development in rural Egypt:," Research reports 86, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  12. Gordon H. Hanson, 2007. "Emigration, remittances and labor force participation in Mexico," INTAL Working Papers 1456, Inter-American Development Bank, INTAL.
  13. Bilin Neyapti, 2004. "Trends in Workers' Remittances : A Worldwide Overview," Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, M.E. Sharpe, Inc., vol. 40(2), pages 83-90, March.
  14. Adams Jr., Richard H. & Cuecuecha, Alfredo, 2010. "Remittances, Household Expenditure and Investment in Guatemala," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(11), pages 1626-1641, November.
  15. Adams, Richard H, Jr, 1998. "Remittances, Investment, and Rural Asset Accumulation in Pakistan," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 47(1), pages 155-73, October.
  16. J. Edward Taylor & Scott Rozelle & Alan deBrauw, 1999. "Migration, Remittances, and Agricultural Productivity in China," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(2), pages 287-291, May.
  17. Lucas, Robert E B, 1987. "Emigration to South Africa's Mines," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(3), pages 313-30, June.
  18. Étienne Gilbert, 1991. "Richard H. Adams, The Effects of International Remittances on Poverty, Inequality and Development in Rural Egypt," Revue Tiers Monde, Programme National Persée, vol. 32(128), pages 948-948.
  19. Stark, Oded & Taylor, J. Edward & Yitzhaki, Shlomo, 1988. "Migration, remittances and inequality : A sensitivity analysis using the extended Gini index," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 309-322, May.
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