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Remesas y Migración Internacional en América Latina: Simulación de los Efectos en la Pobreza y la Desigualdad

  • Diego Battistón

    (Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS) - FCE - UNLP y CONICET)

Este trabajo realiza un estudio comparativo del impacto de las remesas y la migración internacional sobre la pobreza y la desigualdad en cuatro países latinoamericanos con importantes procesos migratorios (Ecuador, El Salvador, Honduras y Nicaragua). A partir de encuestas de hogares se estiman los cambios producidos sobre estas dos dimensiones utilizando diferentes microsimulaciones. La metodología utilizada también permite descomponer los cambios totales en efectos directos e indirectos. Los cambios directos están relacionados con la salida del migrante del hogar y la sustitución de ingresos laborales por remesas. Los efectos indirectos (no observables) operan sobre el resto de los miembros del hogar y entre ellos se incluyen restricciones a la liquidez o cambios en las decisiones laborales. La incorporación de un doble mecanismo de selección muestral permite tener en cuenta arreglos intra-hogar que usualmente son excluidos del análisis empírico pero que han recibido fuerte soporte teórico en la literatura. Los resultados indican que en los cuatro países el proceso de migraciones y remesas reduce la desigualdad y en Ecuador, El Salvador y Honduras también se reducen significativamente las tasas de pobreza. La importancia relativa de los canales directos e indirectos depende entre otros factores de las características de los hogares involucrados en el proceso y el tipo de selección que opera sobre los mismos. En términos generales, la sustitución directa de ingreso laboral por remesas tiende a ser más importante cuando los hogares son más pobres mientras que los efectos indirectos se concentran en los hogares con ingresos medios.

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Paper provided by CEDLAS, Universidad Nacional de La Plata in its series CEDLAS, Working Papers with number 0110.

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Length: 44 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2010
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:dls:wpaper:0110
Contact details of provider: Postal: Calle 48 No555 - La Plata (1900)
Phone: 21- 1466
Fax: 54-21-25-9536
Web page: http://cedlas.econo.unlp.edu.ar/

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  1. Adams Jr., Richard H. & Cuecuecha, Alfredo, 2010. "Remittances, Household Expenditure and Investment in Guatemala," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(11), pages 1626-1641, November.
  2. J. Edward Taylor & Scott Rozelle & Alan deBrauw, 1999. "Migration, Remittances, and Agricultural Productivity in China," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(2), pages 287-291, May.
  3. Elke Holst & Mechthild Schrooten, 2006. "Migration and Money - What Determines Remittances?: Evidence from Germany," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 566, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  4. Lucas, Robert E B, 1987. "Emigration to South Africa's Mines," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(3), pages 313-30, June.
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  6. Adams, Richard H, Jr, 1998. "Remittances, Investment, and Rural Asset Accumulation in Pakistan," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 47(1), pages 155-73, October.
  7. Adams, Richard H., Jr., 1991. "The effects of international remittances on poverty, inequality, and development in rural Egypt:," Research reports 86, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  8. Acosta, Pablo & Fajnzylber, Pablo & Lopez, J. Humberto, 2007. "The impact of remittances on poverty and human capital : evidence from Latin American household surveys," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4247, The World Bank.
  9. Deaton, A. & Paxson, C., 1997. "Poverty Among Children and the Eldrely in Developing Countries," Papers 179, Princeton, Woodrow Wilson School - Development Studies.
  10. Lipton, Michael, 1980. "Migration from rural areas of poor countries: The impact on rural productivity and income distribution," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 1-24, January.
  11. HwaJung Choi, 2007. "Are Remittances Insurance? Evidence from Rainfall Shocks in the Philippines," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 21(2), pages 219-248, May.
  12. Lanzona, Leonardo A., 1998. "Migration, self-selection and earnings in Philippine rural communities," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(1), pages 27-50, June.
  13. Rosenzweig, Mark R., 1986. "Risk, Implicit Contracts and the Family in Rural Areas of Low-Income Countries," Bulletins 7518, University of Minnesota, Economic Development Center.
  14. José de Hevia & María Arrazola, 2009. "Marginal effects in the double selection regression model: an illustration for the wages of women in Spain," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 29(2), pages 611-621.
  15. Bilin Neyapti, 2004. "Trends in Workers' Remittances : A Worldwide Overview," Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, M.E. Sharpe, Inc., vol. 40(2), pages 83-90, March.
  16. Étienne Gilbert, 1991. "Richard H. Adams, The Effects of International Remittances on Poverty, Inequality and Development in Rural Egypt," Revue Tiers Monde, Programme National Persée, vol. 32(128), pages 948-948.
  17. Richard H. Adams, Jr. & John Page, 2003. "International migration, remittances, and poverty in developing countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3179, The World Bank.
  18. Stark, Oded & Taylor, J Edward & Yitzhaki, Shlomo, 1986. "Remittances and Inequality," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 96(383), pages 722-40, September.
  19. Stark, Oded & Taylor, J. Edward & Yitzhaki, Shlomo, 1988. "Migration, remittances and inequality : A sensitivity analysis using the extended Gini index," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 309-322, May.
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