Income Contributions of Child Work in Rural Ethiopia
The income contribution of child work is undoubtedly a key factor influencing child work and schooling decisions. Yet, few studies have attempted to directly measure this contribution. This is particularly the case for work performed on the household farm, as is the case for the vast majority of child workers, rather than for wages. In this study, we estimate a household income function with child labour included as an input. Results using a variety of functional forms and alternative child labour variables are compared. We conclude that children and adults are perfect labour substitutes and that the marginal productivity of children is roughly one-third to one-half that of male adults. The average contribution of each working child is estimated at 4 to 7% of household income, although there is substantial variation with contributions ranging up to 50%. These results underline the dependency of poor households on child work for survival.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Croppenstedt, Andre & Muller, Christophe, 2000. "The Impact of Farmers' Health and Nutritional Status on Their Productivity and Efficiency: Evidence from Ethiopia," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 48(3), pages 475-502, April.
- Gronau, Reuben, 1997. "The Theory of Home Production: The Past Ten Years," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(2), pages 197-205, April.
- Rosenzweig, Mark R & Evenson, Robert E, 1977. "Fertility, Schooling, and the Economic Contribution of Children in Rural India: An Econometric Analysis," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 45(5), pages 1065-79, July.
- S. R. Johnson & Gordon C. Rausser, 1971. "Effects of Misspecifications of Log-Linear Functions When Sample Values are Zero or Negative," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 53(1), pages 120-124.
- Canagarajah, Sudharshan & Coulombe, Harold, 1997. "Child labor and schooling in Ghana," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1844, The World Bank.
- Magnac, T. & Lambert, S., 1992. "Recursive or Non Recursive Agricultural Household Decision Making; An Application to Cote d'Ivoire," DELTA Working Papers 92-20, DELTA (Ecole normale supérieure).
- John Bound & David A. Jaeger & Regina Baker, 1993. "The Cure Can Be Worse than the Disease: A Cautionary Tale Regarding Instrumental Variables," NBER Technical Working Papers 0137, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- repec:fth:oxesaf:2000-4 is not listed on IDEAS
- De Vos, Susan, 1985. "An Old-Age Security Incentive for Children in the Philippines and Taiwan," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 33(4), pages 793-814, July.
- Hoddinott, John, 1992. "Rotten Kids or Manipulative Parents: Are Children Old Age Security in Western Kenya?," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 40(3), pages 545-65, April.
- Diewert, W E, 1971. "An Application of the Shephard Duality Theorem: A Generalized Leontief Production Function," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 79(3), pages 481-507, May-June.
- Reuben Gronau & R. Layard, .
"Home Production - A Survey,"
University of Chicago - Population Research Center
85-2, Chicago - Population Research Center.
- Hanan G. Jacoby, 1993. "Shadow Wages and Peasant Family Labour Supply: An Econometric Application to the Peruvian Sierra," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 60(4), pages 903-921.
- Basu, Kaushik & Van, Pham Hoang, 1998. "The Economics of Child Labor," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(3), pages 412-27, June.
- Jacoby, Hanan G., 1991. "Productivity of men and women and the sexual division of labor in peasant agriculture of the Peruvian Sierra," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(1-2), pages 265-287, November.
- Serge Lambert & Thierry Magnac, 1997. "Implicit Prices and Recursivity of Agricultural Household's Decisions," Working Papers 97-31, Centre de Recherche en Economie et Statistique.
- Sonia Bhalotra, 2003. "Child Labour in Africa," OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers 4, OECD Publishing.
- Udry, Christopher, 1996. "Gender, Agricultural Production, and the Theory of the Household," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 104(5), pages 1010-46, October.
- George J. Mergos, 1992. "The Economic Contribution of Children in Peasant Agriculture and the Effect of Education: Evidence from the Philippines," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 31(2), pages 189-201.
- MaCurdy, Thomas E & Pencavel, John H, 1986. "Testing between Competing Models of Wage and Employment Determination in Unionized Markets," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(3), pages S3-S39, June.
- Mueller, Eva, 1984. "The value and allocation of time in rural Botswana," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(1-3), pages 329-360.
- Christopher B. Barrett & Shane M. Sherlund & Akinwumi A. Adesina, 2008. "Shadow wages, allocative inefficiency, and labor supply in smallholder agriculture," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 38(1), pages 21-34, 01.
- Sharada Weir & John Knight, 2000.
"Education externalities in rural Ethiopia: evidence from average and stochastic frontier production functions,"
CSAE Working Paper Series
2000-04, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
- John Knight & Sharada Weir, 2000. "Education Externalities in Rural Ethiopia: Evidence from Average and Stochastic Frontier Production Functions," Economics Series Working Papers WPS/2000-04, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpdc:0409051. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (EconWPA)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.