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Political reservations and women's entrepreneurship in India

  • Ghani, Ejaz
  • Kerr, William R.
  • O'Connell, Stephen D.

This paper quantifies the link between the timing of state-level implementations of political reservations for women in India with the role of women in India's manufacturing sector. While overall employment of women in manufacturing does not increase after the reforms, there is significant evidence that more women-owned establishments were created in the unorganized/informal sector. These new establishments were concentrated in industries where women entrepreneurs have been traditionally active and the entry was mainly found among household-based establishments. The paper measures and discusses the extent to which this heightened entrepreneurship is due to channels like greater finance access or heightened inspiration for women entrepreneurs.

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Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 6307.

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Date of creation: 01 Jan 2013
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:6307
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  22. repec:oup:qjecon:v:124:y:2009:i:4:p:1497-1540 is not listed on IDEAS
  23. Ghani, Ejaz & Kerr, William R. & O'Connell, Stephen D., 2013. "Female business ownership and informal sector persistence," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6612, The World Bank.
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  27. Ghani, Ejaz & Mani, Anandi & O'Connell, Stephen D., 2013. "Can political empowerment help economic empowerment ? women leaders and female labor force participation in India," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6675, The World Bank.
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  33. Maria Minniti, 2010. "Female Entrepreneurship and Economic Activity," The European Journal of Development Research, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 22(3), pages 294-312, July.
  34. Ghani, Ejaz & Kerr, William R. & O'Connell, Stephen D., 2013. "The exceptional persistence of India's unorganized sector," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6454, The World Bank.
  35. Erica Field & Seema Jayachandran & Rohini Pande, 2010. "Do Traditional Institutions Constrain Female Entrepreneurship? A Field Experiment on Business Training in India," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 100(2), pages 125-29, May.
  36. Bruhn, Miriam, 2009. "Female-owned firms in Latin America : characteristics, performance, and obstacles to growth," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5122, The World Bank.
  37. Parker,Simon C., 2009. "The Economics of Entrepreneurship," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521728355.
  38. Leora F. Klapper & Simon C. Parker, 2011. "Gender and the Business Environment for New Firm Creation," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 26(2), pages 237-257, August.
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