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Ethnic minority development in Vietnam : a socioeconomic perspective

Author

Listed:
  • Baulch, Bob
  • Truong Thi Kim Chuyen
  • Haughton, Dominique
  • Haughton, Jonathan

Abstract

The authors examine the latest quantitative evidence on disparities in living standards between and among different ethnic groups in Vietnam. Using data from the 1998 Vietnam Living Standards Survey and 1999 Census, they show that Kinh and Hoa ("majority") households have substantially higher living standards than"minority"households from Vietnam's other 52 ethnic groups. Subdividing the population into five broad categories, the authors find that while the Kinh, Hoa, Khmer, and Northern Highland minorities have benefited from economic growth in the 1990s, the growth of Central Highland minorities has stagnated. Disaggregating further, they find that the same ethnic groups whose living standards have risen fastest are those that have the highest school enrollment rates, are most likely to intermarry with Kinh partners, and are the least likely to practice a religion. The authors then estimate and decompose a set of expenditure regressions which show that even if minority households had the same endowments as Kinh households, this would close no more than a third of the gap in per capita expenditures. While some ethnic minorities seem to be doing well with a strategy of assimilating (both culturally and economically) with the Kinh-Hoa majority, other groups are attempting to integrate economically while retaining distinct cultural identities. A third group comprising the Central Highland minorities, including the Hmong, is largely being left behind by the growth process. Such diversity in the socioeconomic development experiences of the different ethnic minorities indicates the need for similar diversity in the policy interventions that are designed to assist them.

Suggested Citation

  • Baulch, Bob & Truong Thi Kim Chuyen & Haughton, Dominique & Haughton, Jonathan, 2002. "Ethnic minority development in Vietnam : a socioeconomic perspective," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2836, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:2836
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Minot, Nicholas & Baulch, Bob, 2002. "The spatial distribution of poverty in Vietnam and the potential for targeting," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2829, The World Bank.
    2. Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
    3. Alan S. Blinder, 1973. "Wage Discrimination: Reduced Form and Structural Estimates," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 8(4), pages 436-455.
    4. Van de Walle, Dominique, 2002. "The static and dynamic incidence of Vietnam's public safety net," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2791, The World Bank.
    5. van de Walle, Dominique & Gunewardena, Dileni, 2001. "Sources of ethnic inequality in Viet Nam," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(1), pages 177-207, June.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Swinkels, Rob & Turk, Carrie, 2003. "Strategic planning for poverty reduction in Vietnam : progress and challenges for meeting the localized Millennium Development Goals," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2961, The World Bank.
    2. Giang, Thanh Long & Pfau, Wade Donald, 2008. "Determinants of Elderly Poverty in Vietnam," MPRA Paper 9927, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Giang, Long Thanh & Pfau, Wade Donald, 2009. "A Gender Perspective on Elderly Work in Vietnam," MPRA Paper 24946, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Minot, Nicholas & Baulch, Bob, 2002. "The spatial distribution of poverty in Vietnam and the potential for targeting," MTID discussion papers 42, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    5. Patricia Justino & Julie Litchfield, 2003. "Poverty Dynamics in Rural Vietnam: Winners and Losers During Reform," PRUS Working Papers 10, Poverty Research Unit at Sussex, University of Sussex.
    6. repec:dau:papers:123456789/14463 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. World Bank, 2009. "Country Social Analysis : Ethnicity and Development in Vietnam - Summary report," World Bank Other Operational Studies 3093, The World Bank.
    8. Vijverberg, WimP. M. & Haughton, Jonathan, 2002. "Household enterprises in Vietnam : survival, growth, and living standards," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2773, The World Bank.
    9. Green, Maia & Hulme, David, 2005. "From correlates and characteristics to causes: thinking about poverty from a chronic poverty perspective," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 33(6), pages 867-879, June.
    10. Tran Quang Tuyen, 2016. "Income sources and inequality among ethnic minorities in the Northwest region, Vietnam," Environment, Development and Sustainability: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Theory and Practice of Sustainable Development, Springer, vol. 18(4), pages 1239-1254, August.

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