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Shirking, Commuting and Labor Market Outcomes

  • Steven Ross

    (University of Connecticut)

  • Yves Zenou

    (IUI, University of Southampton and CEPR)

Recent theoretical work has examined the spatial distribution of unemployment using the efficiency wage model as the mechanism by which unemployment arises in the urban economy. This paper extends the standard efficiency wage model in order to allow for behavioral substitution between leisure time at home and effort at work. In equilibrium, residing at a location with a long commute affects the time available for leisure at home and therefore affects the trade-off between effort at work and risk of unemployment. This model implies an empirical relationship between expected commutes and labor market outcomes, which is tested using the metropolitan sample of the American Housing Survey. No evidence is found to suggest a consistent impact of efficiency wages on the spatial pattern of unemployment or earnings.

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Paper provided by University of Connecticut, Department of Economics in its series Working papers with number 2003-41.

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Length: 41 pages
Date of creation: Nov 2003
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:uct:uconnp:2003-41
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Web page: http://www.econ.uconn.edu/

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  1. Zenou, Yves, 2002. "How do Firms Redline Workers?," CEPR Discussion Papers 3209, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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  4. Fujita,Masahisa, 1991. "Urban Economic Theory," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521396455, November.
  5. Patrick Bayer & Stephen L. Ross & Giorgio Topa, 2005. "Place of Work and Place of Residence: Informal Hiring Networks and Labor Market Outcomes," Working Papers 927, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
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  12. White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-38, May.
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  15. Smith, Tony E. & Zenou, Yves, 1997. "Dual Labor Markets, Urban Unemployment, and Multicentric Cities," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 76(1), pages 185-214, September.
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  17. Brueckner, Jan & Zenou, Yves, 2000. "Space And Unemployment: The Labour-Market Effects Of Spatial Mismatch," CEPR Discussion Papers 2397, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  18. Harvey, A C, 1976. "Estimating Regression Models with Multiplicative Heteroscedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 44(3), pages 461-65, May.
  19. Bruce A. Weinberg & Patricia B. Reagan & Jeffrey J. Yankow, 2004. "Do Neighborhoods Affect Hours Worked? Evidence from Longitudinal Data," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 22(4), pages 891-924, October.
  20. Zenou, Y. & Smith, T. E., . "Efficiency wages, involuntary unemployment and urban spatial structure," CORE Discussion Papers RP 1171, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  21. Paul Chen & Per-Anders Edin, 2002. "Efficiency Wages and Industry Wage Differentials: A Comparison Across Methods of Pay," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 84(4), pages 617-631, November.
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  24. Petitte, Ryan A. & Ross, Stephen L., 1999. "Commutes, Neighborhood Effects, and Compensating Differentials: Revisited," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 1-24, July.
  25. William C. Horrace & Ronald L. Oaxaca, 2002. "New Wine in Old Bottles: A Sequential Estimation Technique for the LPM," Econometrics 0206002, EconWPA, revised 11 May 2003.
  26. Lawrence F. Katz & Jeffrey R. Kling & Jeffrey B. Liebman, 2001. "Moving to Opportunity in Boston: Early Results of a Randomized Mobility Experiment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 116(2), pages 607-654.
  27. Ross, Stephen L., 1998. "Racial Differences in Residential and Job Mobility: Evidence Concerning the Spatial Mismatch Hypothesis," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 112-135, January.
  28. William T. Dickens & Lawrence F. Katz, 1986. "Interindustry Wage Differences and Industry Characteristics," NBER Working Papers 2014, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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  32. Zax, Jeffrey S., 1991. "Compensation for commutes in labor and housing markets," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 192-207, September.
  33. Weinberg, Bruce A., 2000. "Black Residential Centralization and the Spatial Mismatch Hypothesis," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 110-134, July.
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