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Urban areas with decentralized employment: Theory and empirical work

In: Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics

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  • White, Michelle J.

Abstract

This chapter discusses theoretical and applied research in urban economics on decentralized cities, i.e., cities in which employment is not restricted to the central business district. The first section discusses informally the incentives that firms face to suburbanize. The next section summarizes the theoretical literature on decentralized cities, including both models which solve for the optimal spatial pattern of employment and models in which the spatial pattern of employment is exogenously determined. In other sections, I discuss rent and wage gradients in decentralized cities and review the empirical literature testing whether, or not, wage gradients exist in urban areas. A section covers the question of whether people follow jobs or jobs follow people to the suburbs and the last section discusses the "wasteful" commuting controversy.

Suggested Citation

  • White, Michelle J., 1999. "Urban areas with decentralized employment: Theory and empirical work," Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics,in: P. C. Cheshire & E. S. Mills (ed.), Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 36, pages 1375-1412 Elsevier.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:regchp:3-36
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    Cited by:

    1. Eric A. Hanushek & Kuzey Yilmaz, 2007. "Schools and Location: Tiebout, Alonso, and Government Policy," NBER Working Papers 12960, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Miguel Angel García & Ivan Muñiz, 2005. "The spatial effect of intra-metropolitan agglomeration economies," Working Papers wpdea0513, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
    3. Iacono, Michael & Levinson, David, 2016. "Mutual causality in road network growth and economic development," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 209-217.
    4. Yiu, C.Y. & Tam, C.S., 2007. "Housing price gradient with two workplaces -- An empirical study in Hong Kong," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 413-429, May.
    5. Miguel Angel Garcia Lopez & Ivan Muñiz Olivera, 2005. "Employment descentralisation: polycentric compaction or sprawl? The case of the Barcelona Metropolitan Region 1986-1996," Working Papers wpdea0511, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
    6. Ivan Muñiz & Anna Galindo & Miguel Ángel García, 2005. "Descentralización, integración y policentrismo en Barcelona," Working Papers wpdea0505, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
    7. J. Elhorst & Jan Oosterhaven, 2006. "Forecasting the impact of transport improvements on commuting and residential choice," Journal of Geographical Systems, Springer, vol. 8(1), pages 39-59, March.
    8. repec:eee:ecolec:v:147:y:2018:i:c:p:353-364 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Diana Gutiérrez, 2011. "Determinantes de la localización del empleo urbano en Bogotá, Colombia," REVISTA DE ECONOMÍA DEL ROSARIO, UNIVERSIDAD DEL ROSARIO, June.
    10. Rose, Heather & Sonstelie, Jon, 2010. "School board politics, school district size, and the bargaining power of teachers' unions," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(3), pages 438-450, May.
    11. Laurent Gobillon & Harris Selod & Yves Zenou, 2002. "Spatial Mismatch : From the Hypothesis of the Theories," Working Papers 2002-57, Center for Research in Economics and Statistics.
    12. Zenou, Yves, 2009. "Search in cities," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 53(6), pages 607-624, August.
    13. Vermeulen, Wouter & van Ommeren, Jos, 2009. "Does land use planning shape regional economies? A simultaneous analysis of housing supply, internal migration and local employment growth in the Netherlands," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 294-310, December.
    14. Yinger, John, 2015. "Hedonic markets and sorting equilibria: Bid-function envelopes for public services and neighborhood amenities," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(C), pages 9-25.
    15. Jorge González, 2008. "Commuting costs and labor force retirement," Working Papers. Serie AD 2008-19, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
    16. Dewey, Jim & Montes-Rojas, Gabriel, 2009. "Inter-city wage differentials and intra-city workplace centralization," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 602-609, September.
    17. Ivan Muñiz & Anna Galindo & Miguel Angel García, 2005. "Descentralisation, Integration and polycentrism in Barcelona," Working Papers wpdea0512, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
    18. Tscharaktschiew, Stefan & Hirte, Georg, 2009. "An urban general equilibrium model with multiple household structures and travel mode choice," MPRA Paper 17697, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    19. Alpkokin, Pelin & Cheung, Charles & Black, John & Hayashi, Yoshitsugu, 2008. "Dynamics of clustered employment growth and its impacts on commuting patterns in rapidly developing cities," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 427-444, March.
    20. Garcia-López, Miquel-Àngel, 2010. "Population suburbanization in Barcelona, 1991-2005: Is its spatial structure changing?," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 119-132, June.
    21. Arauzo-Carod, Josep-Maria, 2000. "Industrial Location Patterns In Catalonia: Industrial Mix And Human Capital," ERSA conference papers ersa00p136, European Regional Science Association.
    22. Jan Oosterhaven & J. Paul Elhorst, 2003. "Effects of Transport Improvements on Commuting and Residential Choice," ERSA conference papers ersa03p29, European Regional Science Association.

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    JEL classification:

    • R1 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics

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