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Dis Ticarette Kuresel Egilimler ve Turkiye Ekonomisi

  • Faruk Aydin
  • Hulya Saygili
  • Mesut Saygili
  • Gokhan Yilmaz

Onceki yuzyil uluslararasi ticaretinin temelini olusturan endustriler arasi ticaret, yerini endustri içi ticarete birakirken, gelismekte olan ulkelerin ihracatinda sanayiinin, gelismis ulkelerin ihracatinda ise hizmetlerin payi artmistir. Teknolojik ilerlemeler, uluslararasi rekabetin artmasi, tasimacilik maliyetlerinin ve tarifelerin gerilemesi, uretim aktivitelerinin, farkli faktor yogunluguna sahip kucuk alt sureclere bolunerek, her bir surecin farkli bir ulkede gerceklestirilmesine olanak vermektedir. Yeni kuresel uretim surecleri bir taraftan gelismekte olan ulkelerin endustri urunleri ihracatini artirirken diger taraftan uretimin ithal sermaye ve aramali kullanimini artirmaktadir. Calismanin bulgulari, sekiz gelismekte olan ve sekiz gelismis ulke arasinda 1990'lardan 2000'lere dikey anlamda uretimde uzmanlasma yapisinin degistigini gostermektedir. Soz konusu donemde gelismis ulkelerin karsilastirmali ustunlukleri ara mallarinda kuvvetlenirken gelismekte olan ulkelerin nihai mallarda goreli avantajlari artmaktadir. Turkiye'nin tekstil ve makine-techizat sektorleri nihai mallarindaki aciklanmis karsilastirmali ustunluk endeksi, son on yilda, sinirli bir oranda iyilesme gosterirken, ana metal ve ulastirma araçlari sektorlerinde hizli bir sekilde artmistir. Gelismekte olan ulkeler arasinda Turkiye en yuksek, Cin ise en dusuk ara mali ithalat-ihracat oranina sahiptir. Sektorel olarak en fazla ara mali ithalati ulastirma araclari sektorunde yapilirken, onu ana metal sektorunun takip etmektedir. Cokuluslu sirketleri gelismekte olan ulkelerin uretim ve ihracat yapilarinin donusumunde onemli rol oynamaktadir. Turkiye'ye de ise dogrudan yatirimlar-ihracat ve buyume iliskisi goreli olarak daha zayifti.

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Paper provided by Research and Monetary Policy Department, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey in its series Working Papers with number 1001.

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Date of creation: 2010
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Handle: RePEc:tcb:wpaper:1001
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