IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/ris/uncgec/2013_009.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Gender Differences in Access to Private Investment Funding to Support the Development of New Technologies

Author

Listed:
  • Bradley, Samantha R.

    () (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics)

  • Gicheva, Dora

    () (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics)

  • Hassell, Lydia

    () (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics)

  • Link, Albert N.

    () (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics)

Abstract

Our descriptive analysis of a random sample of businesses that received Phase II Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program awards shows that female-owned businesses are disadvantaged, compared to male-owned businesses, in their ability to attract alternative investment funding to commercialize their technology-based innovations. Differences in the probability of receiving such financial support are most evident in the West and Northeast Census region states. Respectively, in states in those regions female-owned businesses are 17 and 9 percentage points less likely to attract alternative investment funding.

Suggested Citation

  • Bradley, Samantha R. & Gicheva, Dora & Hassell, Lydia & Link, Albert N., 2013. "Gender Differences in Access to Private Investment Funding to Support the Development of New Technologies," UNCG Economics Working Papers 13-9, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:ris:uncgec:2013_009
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://bryan.uncg.edu/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/13-9.pdf
    File Function: Full text
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Albert N. Link & John T. Scott, 2013. "Governments as entrepreneur: Evaluating the commercialization success of SBIR projects," Chapters,in: Public Support of Innovation in Entrepreneurial Firms, chapter 2, pages 25-38 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    2. Lex Borghans & Bart H. H. Golsteyn & James J. Heckman & Huub Meijers, 2009. "Gender Differences in Risk Aversion and Ambiguity Aversion," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 7(2-3), pages 649-658, 04-05.
    3. Albert Link & Dianne Welsh, 2013. "From laboratory to market: on the propensity of young inventors to form a new business," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 40(1), pages 1-7, January.
    4. Steven N. Kaplan & Per Strömberg, 2004. "Characteristics, Contracts, and Actions: Evidence from Venture Capitalist Analyses," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(5), pages 2177-2210, October.
    5. Muriel Niederle & Lise Vesterlund, 2010. "Explaining the Gender Gap in Math Test Scores: The Role of Competition," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 24(2), pages 129-144, Spring.
    6. Thomas Dohmen & Armin Falk, 2011. "Performance Pay and Multidimensional Sorting: Productivity, Preferences, and Gender," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 101(2), pages 556-590, April.
    7. Blanchflower, David G & Oswald, Andrew J, 1998. "What Makes an Entrepreneur?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 16(1), pages 26-60, January.
    8. Olga Shurchkov, 2012. "Under Pressure: Gender Differences In Output Quality And Quantity Under Competition And Time Constraints," Journal of the European Economic Association, European Economic Association, vol. 10(5), pages 1189-1213, October.
    9. Dora Gicheva & Albert Link, 2013. "Leveraging entrepreneurship through private investments: does gender matter?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 40(2), pages 199-210, February.
    10. S. Brana, 2013. "Microcredit: an answer to the gender problem in funding?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 40(1), pages 87-100, January.
    11. Elizabeth Asiedu & James A. Freeman & Akwasi Nti-Addae, 2012. "Access to Credit by Small Businesses: How Relevant Are Race, Ethnicity, and Gender?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(3), pages 532-537, May.
    12. Tyzoon T. Tyebjee & Albert V. Bruno, 1984. "A Model of Venture Capitalist Investment Activity," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 30(9), pages 1051-1066, September.
    13. David G. Blanchflower & Phillip B. Levine & David J. Zimmerman, 2003. "Discrimination in the Small-Business Credit Market," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(4), pages 930-943, November.
    14. Hans-Martin von Gaudecker & Arthur van Soest & Erik Wengstrom, 2011. "Heterogeneity in Risky Choice Behavior in a Broad Population," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 101(2), pages 664-694, April.
    15. Jianakoplos, Nancy Ammon & Bernasek, Alexandra, 1998. "Are Women More Risk Averse?," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 36(4), pages 620-630, October.
    16. Thomas Hellmann & Manju Puri, 2002. "Venture Capital and the Professionalization of Start-Up Firms: Empirical Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(1), pages 169-197, February.
    17. Bates, Timothy, 2002. "Restricted access to markets characterizes women-owned businesses," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 313-324, July.
    18. Albert N. Link & John T. Scott, 2013. "Employment growth from public support of innovation in small firms," Chapters,in: Public Support of Innovation in Entrepreneurial Firms, chapter 3, pages 41-64 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    19. David H. Hsu, 2004. "What Do Entrepreneurs Pay for Venture Capital Affiliation?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(4), pages 1805-1844, August.
    20. Jeffrey E. Sohl & Laura Hill, 2007. "Women business angels: Insights from angel groups," Venture Capital, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(3), pages 207-222, March.
    21. Eckel, Catherine C. & Grossman, Philip J., 2008. "Men, Women and Risk Aversion: Experimental Evidence," Handbook of Experimental Economics Results, Elsevier.
    22. Gundry, Lisa K. & Welsch, Harold P., 2001. "The ambitious entrepreneur: High growth strategies of women-owned enterprises," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 16(5), pages 453-470, September.
    23. Becker-Blease, John R. & Sohl, Jeffrey E., 2007. "Do women-owned businesses have equal access to angel capital?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 503-521, July.
    24. Sexton, Donald L. & Bowman-Upton, Nancy, 1990. "Female and male entrepreneurs: Psychological characteristics and their role in gender-related discrimination," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 29-36, January.
    25. Robert Fairlie & Justin Marion, 2012. "Affirmative action programs and business ownership among minorities and women," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 39(2), pages 319-339, September.
    26. Muriel Niederle & Lise Vesterlund, 2011. "Gender and Competition," Annual Review of Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 3(1), pages 601-630, September.
    27. Elizabeth Gatewood & Candida Brush & Nancy Carter & Patricia Greene & Myra Hart, 2009. "Diana: a symbol of women entrepreneurs’ hunt for knowledge, money, and the rewards of entrepreneurship," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 32(2), pages 129-144, February.
    28. Fay, Michael & Williams, Lesley, 1993. "Gender bias and the availability of business loans," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 8(4), pages 363-376, July.
    29. Renate Schubert, 1999. "Financial Decision-Making: Are Women Really More Risk-Averse?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(2), pages 381-385, May.
    30. Robert B. Barsky & F. Thomas Juster & Miles S. Kimball & Matthew D. Shapiro, 1997. "Preference Parameters and Behavioral Heterogeneity: An Experimental Approach in the Health and Retirement Study," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 112(2), pages 537-579.
    31. Lex Borghans & Bart H.H. Golsteyn & James J. Heckman & Huub Meijers, 2009. "Gender Differences in Risk Aversion and Ambiguity," Working Papers 200903, Geary Institute, University College Dublin.
    32. Sunden, Annika E & Surette, Brian J, 1998. "Gender Differences in the Allocation of Assets in Retirement Savings Plans," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(2), pages 207-211, May.
    33. Blanchard, Lloyd & Zhao, Bo & Yinger, John, 2008. "Do lenders discriminate against minority and woman entrepreneurs?," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(2), pages 467-497, March.
    34. Lerner, Josh, 1999. "The Government as Venture Capitalist: The Long-Run Impact of the SBIR Program," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 72(3), pages 285-318, July.
    35. Fischer, Eileen M. & Reuber, A. Rebecca & Dyke, Lorraine S., 1993. "A theoretical overview and extension of research on sex, gender, and entrepreneurship," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 151-168, March.
    36. Peter Zwan & Ingrid Verheul & A. Thurik, 2012. "The entrepreneurial ladder, gender, and regional development," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 39(3), pages 627-643, October.
    37. Dean A. Shepherd, 1999. "Venture Capitalists' Assessment of New Venture Survival," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 45(5), pages 621-632, May.
    38. Paul Gompers & Josh Lerner, 2001. "The Venture Capital Revolution," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 15(2), pages 145-168, Spring.
    39. Henry Chen & Paul Gompers & Anna Kovner & Josh Lerner, 2009. "Buy Local? The Geography of Successful and Unsuccessful Venture Capital Expansion," NBER Working Papers 15102, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    40. Nancy Carter & Candida Brush & Patricia Greene & Elizabeth Gatewood & Myra Hart, 2003. "Women entrepreneurs who break through to equity financing: The influence of human, social and financial capital," Venture Capital, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(1), pages 1-28, January.
    41. Holly Buttner, E., 1993. "Female entrepreneurs: How far have they come?," Business Horizons, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 59-65.
    42. Rachel Croson & Uri Gneezy, 2009. "Gender Differences in Preferences," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 47(2), pages 448-474, June.
    43. Fabio Bertoni & Annalisa Croce & Diego D'Adda, 2009. "Venture capital investments and patenting activity of high-tech start-ups: a micro-econometric firm-level analysis," Venture Capital, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(4), pages 307-326, November.
    44. Andrew Healy & Jennifer Pate, 2011. "Can Teams Help to Close the Gender Competition Gap?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 121(555), pages 1192-1204, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Gicheva, Dora & Link, Albert, 2015. "The Gender Gap in Federal and Private Support for Entrepreneurship," UNCG Economics Working Papers 15-5, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Entrepreneurship; Innovation; Technology;

    JEL classification:

    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship
    • O31 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
    • O32 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Management of Technological Innovation and R&D

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ris:uncgec:2013_009. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Albert Link). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/edncgus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.