IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/kap/sbusec/v51y2018i1d10.1007_s11187-017-9922-2.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Gender disparity in angel financing

Author

Listed:
  • Sharon Poczter

    (Cornell University)

  • Melanie Shapsis

    (Cornell University)

Abstract

This study uses unique hand-collected data from a televised entrepreneurial pitch competition to examine gender differences in obtaining angel financing. Results indicate that while the yield rates between male and female teams do not differ, a gender disparity in the amount of angel funding does in fact exist. Female teams receive less capital and provide more equity relative to their male counterparts, even when controlling for typical determinants of investment, such as industry and prior company success. Further, we find that female teams receive investments with lower valuations than their male counterparts largely because they initially offer higher equity stakes for less capital. Thus, this suggests that limitations to angel financing of female entrepreneurial ventures may be partly self-imposed.

Suggested Citation

  • Sharon Poczter & Melanie Shapsis, 2018. "Gender disparity in angel financing," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 51(1), pages 31-55, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:sbusec:v:51:y:2018:i:1:d:10.1007_s11187-017-9922-2
    DOI: 10.1007/s11187-017-9922-2
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11187-017-9922-2
    File Function: Abstract
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1007/s11187-017-9922-2?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Du Rietz, Anita & Henrekson, Magnus, 2000. "Testing the Female Underperformance Hypothesis," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 14(1), pages 1-10, February.
    2. Davis, Steven J & Henrekson, Magnus, 1999. "Explaining National Differences in the Size and Industry Distribution of Employment," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 12(1), pages 59-83, February.
    3. Bellucci, Andrea & Borisov, Alexander & Zazzaro, Alberto, 2010. "Does gender matter in bank-firm relationships? Evidence from small business lending," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(12), pages 2968-2984, December.
    4. Fay, Michael & Williams, Lesley, 1993. "Gender bias and the availability of business loans," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 8(4), pages 363-376, July.
    5. Robert Wiltbank, 2005. "Investment practices and outcomesof informal venture investors," Venture Capital, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 7(4), pages 343-357, August.
    6. Hans Degryse & Peter Goeij & Peter Kappert, 2012. "The impact of firm and industry characteristics on small firms’ capital structure," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 38(4), pages 431-447, May.
    7. Aram, John D., 1989. "Attitudes and behaviors of informal investors toward early-stage investments, technology-based ventures, and coinvestors," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 4(5), pages 333-347, September.
    8. N. Berger, Allen & F. Udell, Gregory, 1998. "The economics of small business finance: The roles of private equity and debt markets in the financial growth cycle," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 613-673, August.
    9. Carpentier, Cécile & Suret, Jean-Marc, 2015. "Angel group members' decision process and rejection criteria: A longitudinal analysis," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 30(6), pages 808-821.
    10. Robert Fairlie & Alicia Robb, 2009. "Gender differences in business performance: evidence from the Characteristics of Business Owners survey," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 33(4), pages 375-395, December.
    11. Frances M Amatucci & Jeffrey E Sohl, 2004. "Women entrepreneurs securing business angel financing: tales from the field," Venture Capital, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 6(2-3), pages 181-196, April.
    12. Mark Van Osnabrugge, 2000. "A comparison of business angel and venture capitalist investment procedures: An agency theory-based analysis," Venture Capital, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 2(2), pages 91-109, April.
    13. Riding, Allan L. & Swift, Catherine S., 1990. "Women business owners and terms of credit: Some empirical findings of the Canadian experience," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 5(5), pages 327-340, September.
    14. Sanjeev Bhojraj & Charles M. C. Lee & Derek K. Oler, 2003. "What's My Line? A Comparison of Industry Classification Schemes for Capital Market Research," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 41(5), pages 745-774, December.
    15. Patricia G. Greene & Candida G. Brush & Myra M. Hart & Patrick Saparito, 2001. "Patterns of venture capital funding: Is gender a factor?," Venture Capital, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 3(1), pages 63-83, January.
    16. Christina Constantinidis & Annie Cornet & Simona Asandei, 2006. "Financing of women-owned ventures: The impact of gender and other owner -and firm-related variables," Venture Capital, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(2), pages 133-157, January.
    17. Prowse, Stephen, 1998. "Angel investors and the market for angel investments," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 785-792, August.
    18. Bat Batjargal & Mannie (Manhong) Liu, 2004. "Entrepreneurs’ Access to Private Equity in China: The Role of Social Capital," Organization Science, INFORMS, vol. 15(2), pages 159-172, April.
    19. Maxwell, Andrew L. & Jeffrey, Scott A. & Lévesque, Moren, 2011. "Business angel early stage decision making," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 212-225, March.
    20. Gundry, Lisa K. & Welsch, Harold P., 2001. "The ambitious entrepreneur: High growth strategies of women-owned enterprises," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 16(5), pages 453-470, September.
    21. Nancy Carter & Candida Brush & Patricia Greene & Elizabeth Gatewood & Myra Hart, 2003. "Women entrepreneurs who break through to equity financing: The influence of human, social and financial capital," Venture Capital, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(1), pages 1-28, January.
    22. Buttner, E. Holly & Rosen, Benson, 1989. "Funding new business ventures: Are decision makers biased against women entrepreneurs?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 4(4), pages 249-261, July.
    23. Mita Bhattacharya & Harry Bloch, 2004. "Determinants of Innovation," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 22(2), pages 155-162, March.
    24. Raphael Amit & Lawrence Glosten & Eitan Muller, 1990. "Entrepreneurial Ability, Venture Investments, and Risk Sharing," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 36(10), pages 1233-1246, October.
    25. Scott Shane & Daniel Cable, 2002. "Network Ties, Reputation, and the Financing of New Ventures," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 48(3), pages 364-381, March.
    26. Becker-Blease, John R. & Sohl, Jeffrey E., 2007. "Do women-owned businesses have equal access to angel capital?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 503-521, July.
    27. Freear, John & Sohl, Jeffrey E. & Wetzel, William Jr., 1994. "Angels and non-angels: Are there differences?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 109-123, March.
    28. Susan Coleman & Alicia Robb, 2009. "A comparison of new firm financing by gender: evidence from the Kauffman Firm Survey data," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 33(4), pages 397-411, December.
    29. Fairlie, Robert, 2015. "The Kauffman Index: Startup Activity | National Trends," Santa Cruz Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt5cb198rq, Department of Economics, UC Santa Cruz.
    30. Scott Shane, 2012. "The Importance of Angel Investing in Financing the Growth of Entrepreneurial Ventures," Quarterly Journal of Finance (QJF), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 2(02), pages 1-42.
    31. repec:idb:brikps:82433 is not listed on IDEAS
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Monika Wodnicka & Dagmara Skurpel, 2021. "Growth Global Market of E-Commerce Cross Border: The Case of Poland," European Research Studies Journal, European Research Studies Journal, vol. 0(Special 1), pages 1121-1135.
    2. Geiger, Mark, 2020. "A meta-analysis of the gender gap(s) in venture funding: Funder- and entrepreneur-driven perspectives," Journal of Business Venturing Insights, Elsevier, vol. 13(C).
    3. Elisa Ughetto & Mariacristina Rossi & David Audretsch & Erik E. Lehmann, 2020. "Female entrepreneurship in the digital era," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 55(2), pages 305-312, August.
    4. Emma Galli & Danilo V. Mascia & Stefania P. S. Rossi, 2020. "Bank credit constraints for women‐led SMEs: Self‐restraint or lender bias?," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 26(4), pages 1147-1188, September.
    5. Shiqin Liu & Haifeng Qian & Kingsley E. Haynes, 2021. "Entrepreneurship in Small Cities: Evidence From U.S. Micropolitan Areas," Economic Development Quarterly, , vol. 35(1), pages 3-21, February.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Richard T. Harrison & Colin M. Mason, 2007. "Does Gender Matter? Women Business Angels and the Supply of Entrepreneurial Finance," Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, , vol. 31(3), pages 445-472, May.
    2. Johannes Wallmeroth & Peter Wirtz & Alexander Groh, 2017. "Institutional Seed Financing, Angel Financing, and Crowdfunding of Entrepreneurial Ventures: A Literature Review," Working Papers hal-01527999, HAL.
    3. John R. Becker–Blease & Jeffrey E. Sohl, 2011. "The Effect of Gender Diversity on Angel Group Investment," Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, , vol. 35(4), pages 709-733, July.
    4. Becker-Blease, John R. & Sohl, Jeffrey E., 2007. "Do women-owned businesses have equal access to angel capital?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 503-521, July.
    5. Xuemei Xie & Jiuchang Lv, 2016. "Social networks of female tech-entrepreneurs and new venture performance: the moderating effects of entrepreneurial alertness and gender discrimination," International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Springer, vol. 12(4), pages 963-983, December.
    6. Lakshmi Balachandra & Tony Briggs & Kim Eddleston & Candida Brush, 2019. "Don’t Pitch Like a Girl!: How Gender Stereotypes Influence Investor Decisions," Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, , vol. 43(1), pages 116-137, January.
    7. Francesca Maria Cesaroni & Francesca Lotti & Paolo Emilio Mistrulli, 2013. "Female firms and banks� lending behaviour: what happened during the great recession?," Questioni di Economia e Finanza (Occasional Papers) 177, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    8. Barbara J. Orser & Allan L. Riding & Kathryn Manley, 2006. "Women Entrepreneurs and Financial Capital," Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, , vol. 30(5), pages 643-665, September.
    9. Colm O'Gorman & Siri Terjesen, 2005. "Financing the Celtic Tigress: Venture financing and informal investment in Ireland," Venture Capital, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(1), pages 69-88, September.
    10. Douglas Cumming & Minjie Zhang, 2019. "Angel investors around the world," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 50(5), pages 692-719, July.
    11. Sara Poggesi & Michela Mari & Luisa Vita, 2016. "What’s new in female entrepreneurship research? Answers from the literature," International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Springer, vol. 12(3), pages 735-764, September.
    12. Kimberly A. Eddleston & Jamie J. Ladge & Cheryl Mitteness & Lakshmi Balachandra, 2016. "Do you See what I See? Signaling Effects of Gender and Firm Characteristics on Financing Entrepreneurial Ventures," Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, , vol. 40(3), pages 489-514, May.
    13. Gianni Romani & Miguel Atienza & Ernesto Amorós, 2011. "Financing needs of nascent entrepreneurs in Chile: does gender matter?," ERSA conference papers ersa10p1425, European Regional Science Association.
    14. Geiger, Mark, 2020. "A meta-analysis of the gender gap(s) in venture funding: Funder- and entrepreneur-driven perspectives," Journal of Business Venturing Insights, Elsevier, vol. 13(C).
    15. Roy Thurik & Sander Wennekers & Ingrid Verheul & David Audretsch, 2001. "An eclectic theory of entrepreneurship: policies, institutions and culture," Scales Research Reports H200012, EIM Business and Policy Research.
    16. Fiona Wilson, 2016. "Making Loan Decisions in Banks: Straight from the Gut?," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 137(1), pages 53-63, August.
    17. Patrick Saparito & Amanda Elam & Candida Brush, 2013. "Bank–Firm Relationships: Do Perceptions Vary by Gender?," Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, , vol. 37(4), pages 837-858, July.
    18. Wood, Matthew S. & Long, Anna & Artz, Kendall, 2020. "Angel investor network pitch meetings: The pull and push of peer opinion," Business Horizons, Elsevier, vol. 63(4), pages 507-518.
    19. Barbara Orser & Susan Coleman & Yanhong Li, 2020. "Progress or pinkwashing: who benefits from digital women-focused capital funds?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 55(2), pages 363-387, August.
    20. Alex Murray & Suresh Kotha & Greg Fisher, 2020. "Community-Based Resource Mobilization: How Entrepreneurs Acquire Resources from Distributed Non-Professionals via Crowdfunding," Organization Science, INFORMS, vol. 31(4), pages 960-989, July.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Angel financing; Women entrepreneurs; Start-up capital;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship
    • M13 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - New Firms; Startups
    • G29 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Other

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:kap:sbusec:v:51:y:2018:i:1:d:10.1007_s11187-017-9922-2. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.springer.com .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Sonal Shukla or Springer Nature Abstracting and Indexing (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.springer.com .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.