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How free admittance affects charged visits to museums: An analysis of the Italian case

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  • Cellini, Roberto
  • Cuccia, Tiziana

Abstract

This paper aims to evaluate whether and how the free admittance to museums and monuments affects the charged visits. We take the Italian state museums and monuments as the case study, and we consider monthly data, aggregate at the national level, from January 1996 to December 2015. Within a multivariate analysis approach, which takes into account the seasonal structure of time series, we document a positive influence of the number of free visitors upon the subsequent number of paying visitors. We also analyse the effect of the change in free admission policy, which has recently occurred in Italy: since July 2014 free admission is no longer reserved to specific segments of population, but it has been extended to all visitors on the first Sunday of each month. We show that this new rule has entailed an increase in both free and charged visits. Our present results can be relevant in the current political debate in Italy, in front of new rules concerning free admission to museums. More in general, we provide pieces of evidence that can be informative in the ever-green debate about free attendance to museum and its relations with individual choices and public policies concerning cultural consumption.

Suggested Citation

  • Cellini, Roberto & Cuccia, Tiziana, 2017. "How free admittance affects charged visits to museums: An analysis of the Italian case," MPRA Paper 78067, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:78067
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Roberto Cellini & Tiziana Cuccia, 2013. "Museum and monument attendance and tourism flow: a time series analysis approach," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(24), pages 3473-3482, August.
    2. Juan Prieto-Rodríguez & Víctor Fernández-Blanco, 2006. "Optimal pricing and grant policies for museums," Journal of Cultural Economics, Springer;The Association for Cultural Economics International, vol. 30(3), pages 169-181, December.
    3. Chen, Chiang-Ming & Chen, Yen-Chien & Tsai, Yi-Chun, 2016. "Evaluating museum free admission policy," Annals of Tourism Research, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 156-159.
    4. Patrizia Lattarulo & Marco Mariani & Laura Razzolini, 2017. "Nudging museums attendance: a field experiment with high school teens," Journal of Cultural Economics, Springer;The Association for Cultural Economics International, vol. 41(3), pages 259-277, August.
    5. Richard H. Thaler, 2008. "Mental Accounting and Consumer Choice," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 27(1), pages 15-25, 01-02.
    6. Elina Lampi & Matilda Orth, 2009. "Who Visits the Museums? A Comparison between Stated Preferences and Observed Effects of Entrance Fees," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 62(1), pages 85-102, February.
    7. Paulo Brito & Carlos Barros, 2005. "Learning-by-Consuming and the Dynamics of the Demand and Prices of Cultural Goods," Journal of Cultural Economics, Springer;The Association for Cultural Economics International, vol. 29(2), pages 83-106, May.
    8. Peacock, Alan T, 1969. "Welfare Economics and Public Subsidies to the Arts," The Manchester School of Economic & Social Studies, University of Manchester, vol. 37(4), pages 323-335, December.
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    10. Faye Steiner, 1997. "Optimal Pricing of Museum Admission," Journal of Cultural Economics, Springer;The Association for Cultural Economics International, vol. 21(4), pages 307-333, December.
    11. Becker, Gary S & Murphy, Kevin M, 1988. "A Theory of Rational Addiction," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 96(4), pages 675-700, August.
    12. Stephen Bailey & Peter Falconer, 1998. "Charging for Admission to Museums and Galleries: A Framework for Analysing the Impact on Access," Journal of Cultural Economics, Springer;The Association for Cultural Economics International, vol. 22(2), pages 167-177, June.
    13. Carlofilippo Frateschi & Elisabetta Lazzaro & Luis Palma Martos, 2009. "A comparative econometric analysis of museum attendance by locals and foreigners: The cases of Padua and Seville," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/149120, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    14. Smith, Richard J. & Taylor, A. M. Robert, 1998. "Additional critical values and asymptotic representations for seasonal unit root tests," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 85(2), pages 269-288, August.
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    16. Juan Gabriel Brida & Chiara Dalle Nogare & Raffaele Scuderi, 2016. "Frequency of museum attendance: motivation matters," Journal of Cultural Economics, Springer;The Association for Cultural Economics International, vol. 40(3), pages 261-283, August.
    17. William Luksetich & Mark Partridge, 1997. "Demand functions for museum services," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 29(12), pages 1553-1559.
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    Cited by:

    1. Cellini, Roberto & Cuccia, Tiziana & Lisi, Domenico, 2019. "Spatial dependence in museum services: An analysis of the Italian case," MPRA Paper 92093, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Museums; Free attendance; Cultural consumption; Seasonal time series.;

    JEL classification:

    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes
    • Z11 - Other Special Topics - - Cultural Economics - - - Economics of the Arts and Literature

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